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Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of curriculum change in the academic performance of student in Ado Odo/Ota Ogun State. The research also meant to answer the following research objectives on the impact of new changes in curriculum. The first research objective was based on the effects of curriculum changes in the academic performance of students The second research objective was based on the constraints or factors that might be affecting the effectiveness of new changes in teaching and learning process, The third research objective was based on the monitoring and support on the new changes in school curriculum. Research objective four was addressed as a recommendation. It was  about the suggestion for future planning of changes in curriculum. In this era of on-going new developments in curriculum, it was imperative to find out how new changes are affecting learning process of students in the country. The continuous changes that are taking place in science curriculum demand the need for this research. Questionnaires, interviews and observation were used as data collection methods using the qualitative method. Schools which participated in the study were selected using purposive sampling. Itis revealed in the findings that teachers feel that it is not necessary for them to change the way they teach, especially those who did not receive training on the new curriculum changes during their tertiary education.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Background of the study

Curriculum change in Ogun state came as an idea for the purpose of addressing education system which was characterized by tribalism, discrimination and inequalities. However, failure to implement successful new curriculum still persists and it is argued that well designed curriculum reform with impressive goals have not been successful because too much

Attention has been focused on the desired educational change and neglects how the curriculum change should be implemented (Bantwini,2009:169).

The adoption of the new constitution after the country became a democracy in 1999 has provided the basis for curriculum change and development in Nigeria. This has led to the adoption of outcomes-based education (OBE) which was followed by the introduction of curriculum (c2005) in 1998 (Chisholm, 2005:80). The adoption of outcomes -based education brought many changes in the education system. The changes affected the old system which was based on teacher -centred philosophy. The outcomes-based education (OBE) opposed traditional education known as Bantu education, which primarily focused on the resources that were available and required that learners demonstrate the required skills and content (Lekgoathi,2010:107). However, outcomes-based education promoted curricular and assessment based on constructivism and opposed traditional educational approaches (Lekgoathi, 2010:107). Curriculum 2005 was revised to national curriculum statement (NCS), which became a policy in 2002 (Chisholm, 2005:80). The main aim of the curriculum revision was to “cleanse”the tribal education system of its short comings and other negative elements (Chisholm, 2005:80). However, the Department of Education, in setting out of its proposals, put little or no responsibility on how these changes can be delivered or implemented (Gultig, et al., 2001:180). Implementation of the change in curriculum is resource-intensive; as such availability of adequate school buildings and science apparatus may be critical for its success. However, the key driver to curriculum change success is the development of teachers’ knowledge, skills, attitudes, and the alignment of teacher training methods. As a result, failure to consider the various issues that facilitate and impact learning and change, when developing a model, may lead to lack of implementation of the curriculum reforms by the educators (Bantwini,2009:180). The literature indicates that the existing research on teachers’ feeling and attitudes towards change tend to give only a limited understanding of the issues (Witz& Lee, 2009:411). This research will investigate and identify students’ attitudes towards curriculum change. It will also look at how attitudes towards curriculum change impact on the academic performance of student both in rural schools and urban area. This will help to understand some teachers’ attitudes towards reform (Witz& Lee, 2009:415). Disparities in the availability of resources between schools in rural areas and those in urban areas need serious attention. From available details, it is difficult to teach science in a school where there are

limited science resources and particularly no laboratories. This situation

contrasts that of urban schools that have well equipped laboratories.

Consequently, many schools in rural areas perform below standards in maths and science. Moreover, this indicates that the evaluation of numeracy and science performance by international comparisons shows that Ogun state children are not performing up to the standards required (Bloch, 2009:17). Therefore, there is a need to improve scientific and  mathematics performance of underprivileged learners (Chisholmet al., 2003:150). Hence, this study will explore the impact of curriculum change in the academic performance of students in schools with limited resources. Chisholm (2005:87) argues that the curriculum change can be implemented with ease in well-resourced contexts possessing well trained

educators. Furthermore, Stears (2009:399) points out that more Academia seem to resist change when it comes to teaching sciences and other subject and still stick to the old approaches. This may be an indication of the shortage of science expertise in the region. From findings from secondary educator, I have seen many schools struggling to implement the changes in curriculum because of shortage of resources and the necessary skills. Many schools do not have qualified science educators, let alone science laboratories where they can conduct the experiments. As a result, the idea of curriculum change in science becomes unrealistic. If these persisting problems are left unattended, learners will continue to underperform in maths and other subjects or courses in schools in the area. My concern regarding the shortage of materials and human resources lent impetus to my decision to undertake this research.

 


1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

the main problem is the effect of curriculum change in the academic performance of students in Ogun State. The challenges of curriculum change are inappropriate curriculum structures and inequalities and disparities in allocation of resources and capacity. Shortages of skilled teachers, science curriculum specialists, learning materials, adequate classrooms, laboratories, and technology are the main problem areas that hinder the success of new curriculum and affect the academic performance of students in Ogun state.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of new academic curriculum in the academic performance of students in Ado odo/Ota Ogun State, however the study seek to:

  1. i) ascertain the effect of new curriculum on the academic performance of students
  2. ii) to evaluate the challenges of adopting the new curriculum

iii) to ascertain the impact of new curriculum on teachers

  1. iv) to simplify the challenges associated with adoption of new curriculum.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

For the successful completion of this study, the following research question were formulated:

  1. Is there difference between the new curriculum and the old one?
  2. What is the impact of new curriculum on teachers?
  • What are the challenges associated with the adoption of new curriculum?
  1. What are the academic challenges associated with new curriculum?
  2. What are the ways of ensuring easy implementation of new curriculum?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is conceived that at the completion of this research the study will be beneficial to the ministry of education who are responsible for curriculum compilation, the legislature, who are the policy makers on educational matters, and the academic institution who are responsible for implementation of this policy. The study will also be of benefit to students, academia, researchers and the general public

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study covers the effect of new academic curriculum in the performance of students in Ado Odo/Ota in Ogun State, however , the study has some constrain or limitation which are:

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher have to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

In education, a curriculum plural: curricula  or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student’s experiences in terms of the educator’s or school’s instructional goals. In a 2003 study Reys, Reys, Lapan, Holliday and Wasman refer to curriculum as a set of learning goals articulated across grades that outline the intended mathematics content and process goals at particular points in time throughout the K–12 school program. Curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. Curriculum is split into several categories, the explicit, the implicit (including the hidden), the excluded and the extra-curricular.

Curricula may be tightly standardized, or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy. Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdom’s National Curriculum. UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education has the primary mission of studying curricula and their implementation worldwide.

ACADEMIC CURRICULUM

The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific course or program. In dictionaries, curriculum is often defined as the courses offered by a school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools.

 

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