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 THE HEALTH IMPLICATION OF POSTINO2 AMONG FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN CROSS RIVER STATE

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Postinor-2 is used as a form of emergency contraception (more commonly known as a morning after pill). Postinor-2 contains 750 micrograms of the drug levonorgestrel, and also contains such ingredients as potato starch, gelatin, and talc. Postinor-2 is formulated to function in a manner similar to the female hormone progesterone, allowing for prevention of pregnancy if taken within a reasonable period of time. Generally, it is recommended that Postinor-2 be taken no later than three days after having unprotected sex. However, it has proven to be more effective in cases where the treatment was started closer to the time of the sexual encounter. Emergency contraception (EC) can significantly reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions especially in Nigeria. Despite the increasing awareness of EC among educated young women in Nigeria, the rate of utilization remains low. This study therefore explores the health implication of postinor 2 among female undergraduate students in Cross River State. The use of EC to analyze their knowledge of emergency contraception, methods ever used, perceived efficacy, and its acceptability.

Participants considered the use of condom and abstinence as the most effective methods of preventing unplanned pregnancy. However, many participants were misinformed about emergency contraception. Generally, participants relied on unconventional and unproven EC; Ampiclox, “Alabukun”, salt water solution, and lime and potash and perceived them to be effective in preventing unplanned pregnancies. Furthermore, respondents’ narratives about methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies revealed that inadequate information on emergency contraception, reliance on unproven crude contraceptive methods, and misconception about modern contraception constitute barriers to the use of emergency contraception. Emergency contraception is the use of a drug or device to prevent pregnancy. It could be used after an unprotected sexual intercourse, contraceptive failure, and coerced unprotected sex or in cases of sexual assault. Studies have shown that the rate of unplanned pregnancy is very high worldwide and unwanted pregnancy is the main reason women seek abortion. Emergency contraception could be very crucial in preventing unplanned pregnancies in settings where abortion is illegal, however, following the evidence presented in the literature, emergency contraception has not been demonstrated to have a population level impact with regards to the reduction in the rate of unplanned pregnancies. Globally, many unplanned pregnancies end up being aborted in safe and unsafe conditions. In Nigeria, over half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted in unsafe conditions leading to deaths and serious complications. Abortion-related mortality accounts for an estimated 8 % of global maternal deaths. Distressingly, half of the abortion-related mortality occurs among young women especially in secondary school in Nigeria. This clearly suggests that secondary school girls as a demographic segment have a special need for emergency contraception.

The health implication of postinor 2 most be considered to know whether it have negative or positive effect among female undergraduate students; When taken in the middle of the menstrual cycle, the preparation may inhibit ovulation. The pill can cause changes in the menstrual cycle in the lady. Your next period could start earlier or later than expected and flow can be lighter or heavier than normal. It can cause nauseating feeling which occurs in approximately 25% of users vomiting It can also bring about bleeding disturbances in some cases, 2-3 days following tablet ingestion .Sometimes it can cause breast tenderness, headache, dizziness, fatigue.

In the majority of cases the next period starts as expected or somewhat earlier, if the period is more than 7 days late it is recommended to perform a pregnancy test. In case of prolonged or heavy bleeding, gynecological examinations are advised. If the user has a reported case of asthma, heart failure, hypertension, migraine, epilepsy, renal impairment, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, depression, and / or stroke, the preparation may be used exclusively in the above mentioned emergency cases. It is not appropriate for regular use. Postinor2 is actually a very harsh drug on young girls, most of the secondary school girls may not follow the directives and it can cause damage to their health.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

Postinor-2 is not intended as a regular method of contraception. It is used to prevent pregnancy when taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. It is estimated that Postinor-2 will prevent 85% of expected pregnancies. 95% of expected pregnancies will be prevented if taken within the first 24 hours, declining to 58% if taken between 48 hours and 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the health implication of postinor2 among female undergraduate student in Cross River State.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary focus of the study is to assess the health implication of postinor2 among female undergraduate student in Cross River State. Specifically, the study intend to;

  1. Assess the effect of postinor2 among female undergraduate student.
  2. Ascertain the relationship between postinor2 and female undergraduate student.
  3. Assess the rate of pregnancy among female undergraduate student.
  4. Ascertain the rate of female undergraduate student usage of postinor2

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: There is no effect of postinor2 among female undergraduate student

H1: There is effect of postinor2 among female undergraduate student

H02: There is no significant relationship between postinor2 and female undergraduate students.

H2: There is significant relationship between postinor2 and female undergraduate students

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to the federal ministry of education, ministry of health, higher institutions, medical consultants, lecturers, female secondary school student and all Nigerians. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of this study covers the health implication of postinor2 among female undergraduate students in Cross River State, the researcher choses to center the focus of this study on University of Calabar (UNICAL). In the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study; The researcher attending lectures, doing assignment, preparing for semester exam and also writing project was the major challenge, thereby limit the study. The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Implication:  The conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.

Health: Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage

Postinor2: Postinor-2 is an emergency contraceptive only.Postinor-2 is not intended as a regular method of contraception. It is used to prevent pregnancy when taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse.

Female: of or denoting the sex that can bear offspring or produce eggs, distinguished biologically by the production of gametes (ova) which can be fertilized by male gametes

Undergraduates: It includes all the academic programs up to the level of a bachelor’s degree. For example, in the United States, an entry level university student is known as an undergraduate, while students of higher degrees are known as graduates.

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