THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ON ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND ITS EFFECT ON EMPLOYMENT
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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on the impact of computer technology on accounting system and its effect on employment. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of finance, Uyo, Akwa Ibom state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made accountants, computer analysts, administrative staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof (Conn, 1978). Accounting can also be referred to as an information system that measures, processes and communicates financial information about an economic entity (Wikipedia, 2013). Advancements in computer technology have dramatically improved accounting systems and transformed economic life. Computers and other digital technologies have increased office productivity facilitating the rapid exchange of documents, research, collaboration with far-flung partners and the collection and analysis of data. Computer technology gave all sorts of individual economic actors the new valuable tools for identifying and pursuing economic and business opportunities (Ballada and Ballada, 2011). Computer Technology deals with the application of computers and other telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data. This may also be described as anything that renders data, information, or perceived knowledge in any visual format through any multimedia distribution mechanism. Applying computer technology in the context of business, it is designed to help management in their stewardship function, support management in their day-to-day operations and decision making. In 1880, machines where invented to help in the accounting system. As year years passed by, advancements on information technology also transformed accounting systems and its processes. There were many developments in the Accounting System. This is designed to help in the management and control of activities related to the firms’ economic and financial area. Accounting system is essential for majority of the business entities. The advancements of technology have lead in the creation of the computerized accounting system which is commonly adopted by business entities at present. This has created a competitive market. Thus, entities need to improve their systems in order to match their information needs for better decision making. With the advent of computer-based accounting system, accountants have to cope with the resulting complexity of the flow of information through the accounting systems. Traditional accounting procedures did not accommodate the sophisticated processing devices that came with the computer-based accounting system. As the design of the computer based accounting system advanced from simple clerical automation to complicated integrated information systems, the accountant could no longer perform his duties around the computer but found it necessary to develop procedures to cope with the new challenges. However, the employment of accountants who does not consider further training on computer-based accounting is threatened. Furthermore, the traditional accountant was not trained in the special languages and devices used in the computer based system. With the introduction of computer to many business applications, those business areas that involve repeated tasks which are often monotonous and fallible to human errors (cash, inventory control, payroll and etc) are increasingly being simplified accurately by combining the cost, effectiveness, simplicity of use, efficiency, reliability and accuracy of the computer to obtain, analyze and interpret data information for efficient business decisions. Nigerian business organizations being to grow in size, business operations and processes become increasingly complex, hence computers are being rapidly introduced to cope with the overwhelming demands of business and growth (Dandago and Rufai, 2013). Though the introduction of computer to many facets of business operations is a welcome idea, its use is further implicated on accounting system and as such organizations need to strike a balance between accounting areas to be manually operated so as to control or limit the menace associated with unemployment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Accounting procedures are naturally complex and are becoming increasingly more sophisticated and so it becomes more necessary wanting to know how computer technology has helped in resolving this complexity and also to get to know of it holds any greater promise for the future and employment in the field of accounting. There is the need also to know if it holds any risk of aiding perpetrators of frauds in order to weigh its risks against benefit. Almost all accounting duties are done on the computer today and this recent development in the practice of accounting has led to situations whereby organizations hire the services of a computer expert for audit purposes. The researcher is examining if the knowledge of computer has displaced accountant with a computer scientist thereby creating an employment deficit. In addition to these problems, the electronic accounting systems are usually designed by systems analyst and programmers who are in most cases non accounts. This makes the accountant a stranger to the system he is to audit, unlike in a manual system. Furthermore, the accounting information processing procedures are stated in computer programs which are written in special computer languages and stored on machine-sensible medium.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the impact of computer technology on accounting system.
- To examine the impact of computer technology on employment in the field of accounting.
- To identify the factors limiting the use of computer technology in the field of accounting
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no impact of computer technology on accounting system
H1: there is impact of computer technology on accounting system
H02: there are no factors limiting the use of computer technology in the field of accounting
H2: there are factors limiting the use of computer technology in the field of accounting
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- The outcome of this study will educate the stakeholders in the field of accounting on how accountants can key into the advent of computer technology for effectiveness in accounting.
- This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study on the impact of computer technology on accounting system and its effect on employment will cover the effectiveness of computer technology in the field of accounting and how it influences employment opportunity. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: The minor in computer information technology (CIT) teaches students about the development and management of business databases, computer networks, web applications, and software systems. … Networking emphasizes the interconnection between individual computers.
ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: Accounting software describes a type of application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, journal, general ledger, payroll, and trial balance.
EMPLOYMENT: Training and development refers to the employer’s effort to equip a newly hired employee with necessary skills to perform at the job, and to help the employee grow within the organization. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve employee’s job satisfaction
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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