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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Ordinarily, an auditor is one to whom the receipt and payment of an organization were read, as is simplified in the Latin verb audira, to hear. This is so because in the ancient time account and records of business, estate, trust and farms were checked by their owners by their being called out by those who compiles them. Auditing however, as it is known today is an independent examination of the financial record and statement of business organization non-profit making bodies, government parasatatrals etc with a view to reporting on them whether they show a true and fair view.
The practice was known to have been exercised by such ancient civilization as the Egyptians. But infact, the increased complexity of commerce today ha greatly widened the scope of auditor operation and has called for a high degree of skills and discernment likewise, the development of modern accountancy and auditing is also credited to the great expansion in industry and commerce, which has taken place since the industrial revolution. It should be realized that the swift change in nature has really created an increases in business transaction and investment in limited liability companies, where share holders are not the manager of their capital. This has thus provided the need for the manager to account to the shareholder. On this note the government made provision for accounts of companies to be examined and reported to the persons other than those who manage the business.
The role of external auditor in banking operation have been investigated in this research works using three selected banks in Aba as a case study for the study. This is based on the fact that there are numerous banks with branches in Aba and the following are the three selected banks to be discussed.
i. FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA
ii. UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC (UBA)
iii.INTER CONTINENTAL BANK PLC.
1.1.1 REVIEW OF THE SELECTED BANKS
First Bank traces its ancestry banks to the first major financial Instruction founded in Nigeria, hence the name. The current chairman is Dr. Ayoola Oba Otudeko, OFR. The bank is the largest retail lender in the nation, while most bank gather funds from consumers and loan it out to large corporations and multinationals, first banks has created a small market for some of its retail clients. At the end o August 2006, the bank had assets totaling 650billion Nigeria or $5billiopn dollars. The bank was also the most highly capitalized stock on the Nigeria stock exchange, and had about 10 billion outstanding shares. It has a subsidiary in the United Kingdom, FBN bank (UK), which has a branch in Paris. The bank also has representative offices in south Africa and China. The company was named the best in Nigeria by Global Finance magazine in September 2006.
The first auditors are Akintola Williams Deloitte and Touche (Chartered Accountant) and KPMG Audit (Chartered Accountants) . The firm has solid Short and Long term ratings from Fitch and the Global Credit Rating Company partly due to its low exposure to non-performing loans. The firms compliance with financial laws has also strengthened with the Economic financial crimes commission giving it a strong rating. Due to spaces, I may see this is all I have about first Bank.
In terms of (UBA) which means United Bank for Frica Plc is the product of the merge of Nigeria’s third (3rd) and firth (5th) largest banks, namely the old UBA and the erstwhile standard trust bank Plc (STB) respectively, and a subsequent acquisition of the erstwhile continental Trust Bank Limited (CTB). The Union emerged as the first successful corporate combination in the history of Nigerian Banking.
Today the United bank for Africa Plc is one of the Africa’s lading financial Institution offering Universal banking to more than 7 million customer across 750 branches in 14 African countries with presence in new York, London and Paris which assets in excess of $19 bn ,UBA is your partner for banking services for Africans and African related businesses globally. Lastly, Intercontinental bank Plc which established as a merchant bank in February under the name, Nigeria Intercontinental Merchant Bank Limited. Commenced business with paid up ordinary share capital of N12 million. In five years it become the most profitable merchant bank in Nigeria.
1989, September 1, The first subsidiary, Intercontinental securities Limited (INTERSEC) and investment company was s et up in 2000 converted to Universal Banking, 2002 became a publicly quoted company listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange with IPO of 288, 995,000 ordinary share, which was fully subscribed. 2004 Public offer of 2.75 million ordinary shared in December, in its quest to exceed the new N25 billion shareholders funds as prescribed by the CBN. Subsidiary by 136% and reaffirming investors confidence in the banks. While 2005 was the merging with three other banks. Equity, Gateway and Global in October, 2005.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Both Internal and External auditor are there to contract and maintain of the financial balance and upbringing of the organization. It is task for this researcher work to investigate on the position effects and influence of the auditors. Emphatically, the external auditors have over financial organization like the banks. Auditing has been the basic means to contract the financial system any organization. despite the practice, the organization still present fruadful financial statement and report to the public and certainly there has been persistent fraudulent practice in the banks, which at the end gets the banks distressed..However, It could be questioned, how could this situation persist while auditing practices had been inexistence in carrying out his research work. Some problems have attracted special attention. These are as follows:
i.Should auditors be changed in two year or should they remain as already established, that as been appointed annually by the banks.
ii.What has been the reason for consistent fraudulent practices in the banks.
iii.What are the actual roles the external auditor play in bank to enhance te growth of the banks and for the bank to keep to standard as required by BOFIO and CAMA.
iv.To what extent should external auditor dive into the financial and managerial systems of the banks?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to critically look or examine the banking business In Nigeria and to also identify the roles of the external auditors to install on effective and efficient in banking operation. It is well known that one of the problem facing banks in Nigeria is mismanagement of fund, loan and credits. Based on the problems identified above the objectives of the researcher work includes the following:
i.To educate auditors lend credence to the accounts of the banks and to ensure compliance with SASIO and IAS30.
ii.To educate on the necessity of banks to keep in mind the essence to comply with the provisions of the banks and other financial institutions decree, 1991.
iii.To teach the banks to ensure compliance with the companies and allied matters Act (CVAMA) 1990.
iv.To highlight the need for appropriate review and report upon the accounts and balance sheet for banks by external auditors.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In view of this research work, specific questions are pertinently identified to aid the accomplishment of the intended aim. These include:
i. Does the banks make provision for the external auditors whose it appoints to audit the financial statement prepared by the banks.
ii.Has the management of the bank with the help of the external auditor endeavored to curtail the inadequate in financial report
iii.Do banks accurately provide all the necessary book of records for verification and investigation if it becomes very necessary?
iv. Has the presence and investigative activities of auditors enabled bank to check their fraudulent practices.
v. Has inefficiency in cash and financial management resulted into deficiency in the entire banks financial management resulted into deficiency in the entire banks financial system control.
vi. Do banks adhere to the requirement establishment by bank and other financial institution decree 1991 and also that of the companies and allied Matters Act 1990.
vii. Have the banks been keeping to the requirement of CAMA 1990 with regards to preparing their annual financial report and statement.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In view of the problems and questions already mentioned and the objectives and the significance set to be achieved in this research work, the hypotheses for this study my be formulated for acceptance or rejection as follows:
Given that Ho = Null Hypotheses and
Hi = Alternative Hypothesis.
i. Ho = Fraudulent practice have not declined in the bank since 2000.
Hi = Fraudulent practice have declined in the band since 2000
ii. Ho: = banks do not employ the service of external auditors to audit and investigate their financial statement, report and record. Council library documentations were made use of also Abia Poly library and other textbooks were made use of it in this research work. The work deals on the history, nature, roles, and essentials of external auditors in banking business in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To appreciate the general significance of this research work, one will have to put into consideration the roles of the external audit in bank and that of the internal auditor. In considering this, the importance of this study are assed by the need to ascertain tat bank keep up to the requirement of the banks and other financial institution degree, 1991. other importance include the following:
i.The government regulations on banks are being acknowledged by the external auditors, however, making sure that they are continuously put to effect by banks.
ii.Also the auditors roles ins established in the view to assessing in general the financial background of the banks aiming at putting to a stop the issues of distress.
iii.It creates room f or possible assessment of the banks financial reports enabling the entire public to receive what they bargained for this is a true and fair reviewed re[ort.
iv.The investors are opportuned to understand the financial reporting nature of banks thus knowledgeable detecting true and fair viewed report which might be measures to them in their business with banks.
v. The project will provide for any student carrying out a similar topic or further research work on this subject a solid foundation for the realization of his or her researcher purposes of works.
vi.This study is also in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Higher national Diploma (HND) Degree in Accountancy to the research.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This aspect of the research work is of utmost importance to enable the user of the research finding to appreciate thoroughly the research work in its entirety. The following are the definition of some terms used in the project work.
v Banking Business: According to BOFIO, it is a business of receiving deposit, a current account, savings account or other similar account paying or collecting cheques drawn by or paid by customers, provision of financial or such other business as the Government (or the central bank of Nigeria) may order published in the Gazzette designated as banking business .
v Accounting Polices: Accounting Polices encompasses the principle base connections, rate and procedures adopted by management in preparing and presenting financial statement. They are the specific accounting bases followed, for items considered to be material in the determination of profit or loss for the period and stating matters in the financial partition.
v An Audit: It is an Independent examination of the financial records and statement of business organization non-profit masking bodies, government parastatals etc with a view to reporting on them whether they show a true and fair view.
v Internal Check: Is the part of internal control system which deals with the organization and preparation of the book-keeping and other clerical duties in such a way as to ensure that no single task is executed from its inception to its completion by only one person and the work of each clerk engaged upon a task is subject to an independent check in the course of another’s duties.
v Substantive Test: the auditing standard and Guideline in internal control defines substantive test a s “those test of transaction and balances and other procedures such as analytical reviews, which seek to provide audit evidence as to the completeness, accuracy and validity of the information contained in the accounting records.
v Vouching: Vouching is the examination of the documentary evidences put forward to support the entries in a clients accounting records. A voucher is any document, which forms ten basis for an entry in the accounting records.
v Fraud: Fraud is referred to those acts, which include the sue of deception to obtain an illegal or unjust financial advantages and is also an intentional mis-statement in or Omission of accounts or disclosure from an entity’s accounting records of financial statement.
v Chi-square Test (X2): This is a text statistic used to test whether an observed series of value differ significantly from what was expected. It is employed for testing more than two population properties.