A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP STYLE AND ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR
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Organizations are set up to accomplish set goals and objective. people therefore get together in an organization or the attachment of specific goals. their personal goals as well as the goals of the organization if they are sufficiently motivated. this leadership becomes an essential factor towards accomplishing these tasks. this study is therefore concerned with the evaluation of leadership styles and organizational performances in the private sector. the scope of the study is to analyze various leadership style and motivational theories and the things that generally affects the workers in affect on organization performance. based on this the study tries to identify the leadership style common in the private sectors in Abia state and to suggest the style that will be more effective in running private organization. this research discussed on the methodology by which the data contained in the research were collected. the sources of data and the method of analyzing primary data such as questionnaires personal interviews and observations were applied.
1.1 Background of the study
Guinness Nigeria Plc, a subsidiary of the prestigious Diageo Plc, of the United Kingdom, was incorporated in 1967 with the building of a brewery in Ikeja the heart of Lagos. The brewery was the first outside Ireland and Britain. Other breweries were later opened over time in 1974, the Benin City brewery was established and Ogha brewery in 1982. The issue of an impact of job performance in an organization or establishment depends largely on its leadership style. The word leadership means the art by which a person is privilege to direct thoughts, plans and activities of others in such a way as to command their respect, obedience and cooperation. According to Orway T. (1983), leadership style can be defined as the way a leader combines the leadership skill with the function which he performs in order to motivate those who he is leading. It has be suggested that there are democratic, autocratic and lassies faire, which shall be discussed in detail in this write up. Early theories identified two basic ideas of leadership: That there was one vetted leadership style for all situations that is leaders emerge as situation arises. That leaders are born not made, which means that people are born with leadership qualities in general research uncovered the following characters of a good leader which include intelligent, social festivity, originality, self-confidence and social participation, communication skill etc. The term leadership therefore can be defined as the exercise of influence in a social situation in which the followers’ (influences) attribute .leadership qualities to the leader (influencer). Leaders are leaders because other people view them as such. It must be noted that not all leaders are effective managers and not all managers are effective leaders. In other words, leadership has been described as a process of persuasion where the leader (or team of leaders) act as an example for a group in order to motivate and induce the group to pursue the objectives of the leader and the organization. In this regard, it is important to realize the culture of their working environment. They are integral parts of the system in which they arise yet dependent upon two-way communication with constituent and the forces that create the circumstances in which they emerge. In addition, leaders are accountable for the performance of their organization or the success of the government, which is dependent on employee’s productivity. The role of leadership in management is largely determined by organizational culture of the company. It has been argued that manager’s beliefs, values and assumptions are of critical importance to the overall style of leadership they adopt. Maxwell (2002) says that 21” century leader is one who empowers others to be leaders. Managers and supervisors must know the techniques, challenges and benefits of facilitative leadership. According to him, “the old world was composed of bosses who told you what to do and think and made all the decisions. In the new world, no manager can know everything or make every decision now to be successful, a manager has to work in partnership and in collaboration with everyone, in other to tap everyone’s ideas and intelligence. Managers now are coach, counselors and team builders. Their job is to find people with talent and skill, and help them work together towards common goals. Leadership is influential processes which distinguish a leader by their actions, and also encourage a group of people to more towards a common or shared goal. A leader is an individual, while leadership is the function that the individual performs. Besides, an individual within an organization who have authority are often referred to as a leader, regardless of how they act in their job. But just because someone is supposed to be a formal leader in an Organization, him or her or not exercise leadership.
Leadership style as an aspect of management is very vital for the success of any organization. The quality of leadership can affect the behavior of the subordinates toward the achievement of the organization’s objectives. This is so because it is the leaders that carry out the planning, directing, coordinating and controlling of all activities in the organization in order to ensure that goals and objectives are achieved. Thus, when subordinates see their leaders in bad light, such perception will affect their performance and if the subordinates are satisfied with leader’s style, they will be effective in their duties.
It is in view of the above that the researcher chose this topic which investigates the impact of leadership style on organization performance through the survey of Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Workers in an organization have some needs to satisfy and the way they are made to satisfy these needs in the work place can affect the performance of the workers leadership of an organization is sometimes blind to certain things that induce the objectives of the organization. The style of leadership adopted by the leaders can greatly affect the performance of workers, especially in such leadership style, helps the subordinate in achieving their objective in the organization.
Thus, the leadership style of satisfaction with the leadership styles of his boss in meeting his needs can have impact on his performance in the organization.
However, leaders find it difficult to postulate their kind of styles to the workers and the organization in order to increase their organizational performance. Also, the rate of illiteracy also hinder the organizational performance.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions are relevant for proper understanding of the study.
- Does a worker’s satisfaction with his/her boss leadership style lead to effective performance?
- How can leadership style geared towards the needs of employees motivate them to perform?
- Does worker perception of their leader fairness leads to higher performance?
- Does leadership style that allows workers to participate in the decision affecting them motivate them to higher performance?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: A worker’s satisfaction with his/her boss leadership style will not lead to effective performance.
Hi: A worker’s satisfaction with his/her boss leadership style will lead to effective performance.
Ho: Leadership geared towards the needs of employees will not motivate them to perform.
Hi: Leadership geared towards the needs of employees will motivate them to perform.
Ho: Workers perception of their leadership fairness in dealing with subordinates will not lead to higher performance.
Hi: Workers perception of their leadership fairness in dealing with subordinates will lead to higher performance.
Ho: Leadership style that allow workers to participate in decision affecting them will not lead them to higher performance.
Hi: Leadership style that allow workers to participate in decision affecting them will lead them to higher performance.
1.5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at attaining the following purposes:
- To ascertain whether a particular style of leadership motivates workers to perform better.
- To find out how leadership has affected subordinates performance in an organization.
- To determine if there is any relationship between leadership and worker’s performance in an organization.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City. Respondents are expected to be drawn from the different categories of worker in all the departments in the organization. Issues covered in this study are the theories of leadership, types of leadership and the effect of leadership on worker’s performance.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable the leadership of Guinness Nigeria Plc to see the impact which leadership style has on their employees or subordinates.
It will help the leaders to have a better understanding of their employees and know the best leadership style to adopt in order to effectively influence or motivate their subordinates.
This work will also be of importance to other organization especially those having problems with leadership. They can draw lessons from the recommendation of this study to enhance the qualities of their leaders.
This research work will also be of relevance to individuals most especially students in the field of business studies as it will enlighten them on how to become efficient leaders.
Lastly, it is of great significant to the researcher because it has broadened his knowledge on the importance of leadership in an organization
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The following constraints were encountered in this study.
Lack of Current and Reliable Data: This was as a result of respondents withholding information because they are not willing to disclose organization’s strategy.
Lack of Access to Organization’s Document and Employees: It was not easy task to seek the views of employees in this busy schedules and getting access to document.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Organization: A structured process in which people interact to attain an objective.
Satisfaction: This are the contentment or pleasure a worker drives from his work.
Leader: A person who influence and direct the affairs of others
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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