ASSESSMENT ON THE EFFECT OF ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE MATCHES SHOWING ON DSTV ON NIGERIAN YOUTH
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This study is based on an assessment of the effect of English premiership matches on youths. It appraises the current trend of wide support, interest and love for the game of football. It analyses the effects it exact s on the youth and the society in fostering integration, unity, peace, passion, energy, and a means of entertainment and social relaxation. However the research also analyses some negative effect such as the outcome of conflict arising from the game and the growing trend of youth fraternizing and even negating their studies for the passion of football. A case analysis is conducted to determine the effect of the game on Nasarawa state university undergraduate.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
1.1 Background of the study
Nigerian youths have formed part of the global followers of the british premier league matches The national media’s specialty at covering and broadcasting the league has been unprecedented. The passion, zeal, accuracy, and dexterity with which presenters of football matches broadcast and run commentary of the premiership and other leagues in Nigeria increases viewers’ love and interest for the game of football. Also developed in viewers is the interest to identify with a club side as a fan/supporter. The followership could be compared to that experienced with the Nigerian local football league in the 1970 and mid 80s, which has since been reduced drastically because of poor organization. Apart from the national media, another medium providing Nigerians with the avenue to view live coverage of these matches is the pay per-view centers, scattered all across the nation’s cities. These viewing centers, specializing in providing pay per view services of European football matches, have increased tremendously since the beginning of the 21st century when more cable television net-works entered into the business with fairly affordable subscription rates. Audiences viewing games, plus fanatic support for particular clubs, have increased. An average Nigerian youth and adult (male and female) are happy to identify as fan of a chosen club side in the british premier league. Visits at these viewing centers will find fans displaying knowledge of clubs history and player’s profiles, as well as mini-fans club (non-formalized club). All members are known and are identified as “our man’ and “our club” showing their unflinching support and love for their chosen club The dexterity with which Nigerian youths have in support and love for the premier league matches constitute the fundamental basis for this research. The league had in recent times fosters a common front in enhancing cultural and ethnic integration, peace, unity, love, harmony. As Giulianotti and Robertson (2004) argue, sport, in particular football has been the world’s most popular leisure pursuit, at least since the late 19th century. Nowadays, it is one of the most dynamic and sociologically educational domains of globalization (Ibid). Transnational football broadcasting is the main instrument of football globalisation (Akindes, 2011). The transnational football media corporations engage in globalization and commodification of the football worldwide. They provide the business infrastructure for the global flow of football games and increase the number of specialist televised football channels (Giulianotti & Robertson, 2007b) for example, the super sport channel of Digital Satellite Television (DSTV) in Africa. As Giulianotti & Robertson (2004) argued, the fundamental aim here is to reach the local audiences for trade. They reach these local audiences through top to bottom hierarchical chains ranging from the global producer, continental distributor, national broadcasters and finally what Onwumechili and Akindes (2014) call ‘‘the local electronic stadium’’ – in my study, the DSTV houses, which are small local businesses with a satellite television. European football is the most transnationally televised game, which reaches worldwide audiences. Specifically, the most popular European leagues, mainly the English Premier League, the Spanish La Liga, and the Italian Series A, are imported into several places of the world (Akindes, 2011). Therefore, it could be argued that European football, especially the English Premier League, can be described as having mainly economic and cultural imperialistic ambitions and desires to impose itself on various geographic areas (Sondaal, 2013). However, through processes of glocalization, the interdependence of local and global processes within the game’s identities and institutions can be highlighted (Giulianotti & Robertson, 2004; Andrews & Ritzer, 2007). Transnational televised football is generating a new form of fandom in subSaharan Africa. Many young football fans watch the televised European football matches in ‘‘trans-local electronic stadiums’’ such as football bars, restaurants and kiosks (Akindes, 2011). Transnational football broadcasting has created new business opportunities in many African cities, therefore bars and video theatres are the main places of localisation of a match played in Europe (Ibid). In Ethiopia, the newly emerged football fans watch European televised football, mainly the English Premier League, in the places locally known as DSTV houses. The DSTV houses are local, small business centres, which air the European televised football matches to local audiences that range in age from 8 to 40 years old by subscribing to the South African based DSTV satellite with pay-tv services. Children who are in the age range of 8 to 18 years old make up a significant number of the DSTV houses’ audiences. These child audiences are new and created by transnational football media, for example DSTV. In Giulianotti and Robertson’s (2004) terms, they are de-territorialized football communities of “self-invented virtual Diasporas. However there is the social negative effect such as conflict, youth fraternity, and anti-social behaviors. And in recent times many youths have been found spending more times in betting houses than on their studies .In 2006 and 2007, the effects of English premiership on Nigerians (youths and adults alike) took a new dimension when fans began to label streets after particular football club in the English premiership. There was conflict in parts of Lagos and Ibadan, and other parts of the country, which in some cases lead to violence and killings between supporters of different clubs. Is ethnic identity growing from this? On the surface, it seems that the characteristics of ethnicity are observably on the rise. Even though Nigeria has a thriving football league (the Nigerian Premier League, NPL) with 20 full-fledged teams, a growing number of its citizens are devoted fans of teams and players in European leagues and championships. This upsurge of new interest in televised spectating of foreign matches, this preoccupation has become a major talking point in the country, as can be seen in both academic writings (Akindes, 2011; Majaro-Majesty, 2011; Omobowale, 2009; Adetunji, 2013; Onwumechili & Oloruntola, 2014, for example) and the popular press (Okeke, 2009; Olonilua, 2012; Famutimi, 2013). These two broad categories of publications some respects. While the academic works have sought to analytically examine the origins, practices and the attitudes of this particular fan phenomenon, the newspapers and magazines tend to be more alarmist though reflective, in ways that visualise these fans as estranged local supporters the poor-performing Nigerian football management (Amiesimaka, 2012 for example). However, most of these studies are aspatial in nature despite the fact that electronic fandom as a phenomenon is essentially space-orientedness (see Eastman & Land, 1997; Dixon, 2014). Another identifiable lacuna in the emerging Nigerian scholarship on the subject is the predominant insular outlook of many of the works that seem to divorce the everyday practices of the fans from the wider socio-economic environment of consumption and marketing, dominated by product retailers (clothes, souvenirs, beer, etc.), gambling outfits, and fund raisers of all sorts. With this picture, one may conclude that football is an instigator in causing conflict and the same time at integrating people – a strong point or element in peace and community building. The research therefore intends to provide an assessment on the effect of English premier league matches on Nigerian youths with a case appraisal on Nassarawa state university undergraduates.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem confronting the research is to proffer an assessment on the effects of English
Premier league showing on Dstv on Nigerian youths with a case study of Nassarawa state university undergraduate.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 What is the nature of English premier league
2 What is the effect of English premier league matches on Nigerian youths
3 What is the effect of English premier league matches on Nassarawa state university undergraduate.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH
1 To determine the nature of English premier league
2 To appraise the effect of English premier
3 To determine the effect of the league on Nassarawa state university undergraduate.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The research intends to determine the effect of English premier league and to assess its effect on Nassarawa state university undergraduates
It shall also serve a veritable source of information concerning sports and social effect.
1.6 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
H0: The level of Nassarawa state university undergraduate watching premier league is low
H1: The level of Nassarawa state university undergraduate watching premier league is high
H0: The positive effect of English premier league on Nassarawa state university undergraduate is low
H1: The positive effect of English premier league on Nassarawa state university undergraduate is high
H0: The negative effect of English premier league on Nassarawa state university undergraduate is low
H1: The negative effect of English premier league on Nassarawa state university undergraduate is high
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research shall proffer an assessment of the effect of English premier league matches on Nigeria youths, with a case appraisal of the effect on nassarawa state university undergraduate.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Wuest and Bucher (1999) define sport as recreation, as a socially acceptable and non-profit oriented activity performed during leisure hours which provides immediate and inherent satisfactions to participants.
Mull, Bayless, Ross and Jamieson (1997) see recreation as a means, through which people are educated on how to lead a positive live in their leisure hours.
Leisure is taken as a period when an individual is not engaged in any activity to earn a living. Derived from this then, sport is not just leisure; it is also employable for other uses
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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