TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Table of Content – – – – – – – vii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – x
List of Appendices – – – – – – – xi
Abstract – – – – – – – – xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.4 Research Question – – – – – – 8
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – 8
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – 9
1.7 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – 10
1.8 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 10
1.9 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework – – – – – 12
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – 17
2.3 Empirical Framework – – – – – – 24
2.4 Summary of literature review – – – – – 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 30
3.2 Area of Study – – – – – – – 30
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – 32
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – 32
3.5 Instrumentation – – – – – – – 33
3.6 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – 33
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – 34
3.8 Research Procedure- – – – – – – 34
3.9 Scoring – – – – – – – – 35
3.10 Method of data analysis – – – – – 36
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results – – – – – – – – 37
4.2 Discussion of Results – – – – – – 39
4.3 Summary of Findings – – – – – – 42
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – 43
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 44
5.3 Implications of the Findings – – – – – 45
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – 46
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study – – – – 46
5.6 References – – – – – – – 47
5.7 Appendices – – – – – – – 50
This study was carried out in order to determine the effect case method in the teaching of practical chemistry and students academic achievement in Uyo local government area of Akwa ibom State. A review of literature was carried out under the broad headings of theoretical framework, conceptual framework and empirical framework. The study adopted quasi experimental of two group pretest posttest design. The population consisted of 5400 SS3 students in public secondary schools in Uyo local government area. The sample size was 100 students selected from two schools in study area using random sampling technique of balloting. The instrument used for collection of data was the chemistry achievement test (CAT).The reliability of the instrument was established using Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) with a correlation coefficient of 0.85. Two research questions were posed and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to provide answers for the research questions while the independent t-test was used to test for hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that students taught practical chemistry using case method of teaching performed better than those taught using laboratory activities. Results also showed that male and female students performed equally when taught chemistry with the use of case method. The study recommended that more cases should be added to the secondary school chemistry curriculum as problem solving learning enhances learning and results in better learning outcomes.
1.1 Background of the Study
Every society no matter the level of Development believes that education is, and will continue to be a very critical ingredient for national development. The 21st century has been globally idolized as the global age of science and technology due to the various innovations and inventions during the century. This makes science and technology the most important aspect of the earth. However, the teaching and learning science seem to be an onerous task as science and technology involve theoretical and practical aspects which cannot function separately but makes meaning when applied together.
The Nigerian chemistry education curriculum is expected among other things to enable students;
- Develop interest in the subject of chemistry.
- Acquire basic theoretical and practical knowledge and skills.
- Develop interest in science, technology and mathematic
- Apply skills to meet societal needs of creating employment and wealth.
These objectives are statements of purposes which are meant to be achieved in three years (SS 1 – SS 3). Science education is the application of principles of education in the development and acquisition of processes required to help others acquire scientific and technological knowledge for ready application to everyday living.
Practical activities have administrative and central role in the science education curriculum and science educators have claimed that engaging students in laboratory activities makes them appreciate science better. According to Adeyemo (2009). Science Education at the secondary school levels is expected to be taught as a process of inquiry involving developing in students cognitive skills, affective skills and psychomotor skills of science.
Over the years, many science educators have argued that science cannot be meaningful to student’s worthwhile practical activities in the laboratory. The term “practical” have been used too often without precise definition to embrace a wide array of activities (Belay, 2012).
The national science education standards reaffirm the conviction that inquiry in general and inquiry in an text of practical work in science education is central to the achievement of scientific literacy. Practical activities act as an expository essay to science students as they are exposed to the scientific way. Researches such as (Ozmen et al, 2009, Akwali, 2012) confirm that exposing students to practical experiences in the laboratory improves their knowledge and perception about such subject, boost their morale as they feel like young scientist already.
Chemistry is widely regarded as completely on abstract science in Africa, this is not meant to be so, but due to inability to give real life practical experiences to the numerous theoretical concepts in chemistry.
One reason of this is that chemistry concepts are somewhat abstract in nature and require students to construct mental images they cannot see. Another reason is that a chemical phenomenon requires understanding of both macroscopic and microscopic level, the interactions and distinctions between the levels are important, necessary for comprehending chemical concepts (Sirham, 2007).
Chemistry is essentially a laboratory activity oriented subject. As no topic in chemistry can be considered complete without including practical work in it. According to Belay (2012) laboratory activity is used to describe the practical activities which students undertake using chemicals and equipment in a chemistry laboratory.
The original reasons for the development of laboratory work in chemistry education lay in the need to produce skilled technicians for industry and highly competent worker (Morell, 2010).
Student’s abysmal performance in chemistry examinations have been linked to so many facts like, the availability of the needed teaching and learning resources, this performance can also be linked to the method of teaching. According to Akuto, Aduloju and Odeh (2012) is a process where the students are learning. Poor academic achievement in practical chemistry is not just a bad omen but a disaster towards the development of science in Nigeria. Developing countries are meant to be innovative and geared by doing practical’s and such the practical culture should be encouraged.
Both in content and pedagogy of science, learning are always being analyzed and new standards intended to shape and refresh science education are emerging and in order to aid the development of science, new techniques and methods in teaching scientific concepts are passionately embraced and tested. This has brought up questions about the poor attitude of students towards practical chemistry which also reflects in their poor performance and suggestions have been made to question the effectiveness of laboratory method in teaching practical chemistry due to its inability to groom practical oriented students.
According to Austin and Sonville (2013) most students see learning as an imposed duty and undergo various procedures because they feel compelled to do so without seeing any reason to do so.
According to Wikipedia (2019) as retrieved, case method is a teaching approach that uses decision forcing cases to put students in the role people who were faced with different decisions at some point in the past.
Case method can be defined as a description of real model or stimulated managerial situation along with personal history of an individual, institution or business faced with a problem that must be solved. Putnam and Borko (2013) and Popil (2010) agrees that using cases in teaching gives a better teaching and learning experiences, since participants engage in activities which allows them to use their common sense by analyzing and reflect about the outcome.
Lundgren (2012) says that teaching with cases gives better understanding of the reality and how it is used in different situations. Continuously, the learner is the main focus, because this method of teaching activates the learners to work outside the box and help them develop in oral and written skills as well as practical and analytical skills. Since the case studies do not have one correct solution, it encourages the studies to seek for different alternative solution (Lundgren,2012). This today’s researchers and academics are in a working process of writing new case studies because of high demand of cases that promote educational achievement.
In case method teaching, students review a real world situation (a case) that posses a thought provoking problem or dilemma. Students are placed in the role of decision making and asked how they would resolve.
According to Herreid, et al (2011). Case study in secondary schools promotes team work, collaborative learning and the development of analytical ability.
The teaching of practical chemistry with case methodology is a highly skilled problem solving base method of learning. Teaching with case method opens up the wall of curiosity of decision-making, and enrich the students analytical ability. Teaching science with cases can be either written, oral or in an audio visual form, that are being analysed by the instructor and the learners as they ultimately present a conclusion (Lundgren, 2012). Available literatures (Murray- Nsala 2011, Yakin Kaya et al 2012, Burko, 2015) shows that using case method in teaching science concepts promotes the student’s academic achievement, similarly Bonney (2013) says it facilitates interdisciplinary learning and can be used to highlight connections between specific academic topic and real work societal issues and applications.
Chemistry practical are used to prove theoretical concepts and try out new ideas, find solutions to chemical problems and for innovations. Using cases to teach to teach practical chemistry develops the student’s practical attitude and ability in three (3) ways;
- It puts them in a problem solving situation which involves inquiry and continuous testing in order to find solutions.
- It aids them review a real world that poses a thought provoking problem or dilemma.
- They are being placed in the role of making divisions and asked how to resolve the problem (case).
According to Murray-Nsala (2011), case method has been reported to increase student motivation to participate in class activities, which promotes learning and increases performance on assessment. However, most existing literatures only considers chemistry in general, this motivated the course of this study to assess the functionally of case method and students academic achievement in practical chemistry.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor academic performance and poor attitude towards practical activities in chemistry by secondary school students have been an emerging issue as school students have been made to determine the cause of this in different attitude towards practical science. Though many research has been carried out in order to ascertain the cause of this problem, this research tries to provide an alternative approach of teaching chemistry practical’s in secondary schools with the aim of improving the student’s academic performance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Generally the research focused on case stud and students’ achievement in chemistry, specifically, it focused on;
- To ascertain the influence of case method on student’s academic achievement in practical chemistry.
- The academic achievement of male and female student’s taught practical chemistry using case method.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the investigation.
- What is the difference in the academic achievement scores of students taught practical chemistry with case method and those taught using laboratory activities?
- What is the difference in the academic achievement of male and female students taught practical chemistry using case method.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of student’s taught practical chemistry using case method and those taught using laboratory activity.
- There is no significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female student’s taught practical chemistry using case method.
1.6 Significance of the Study
- May enable teachers understand the effectiveness of using case method in teaching practical chemistry?
- May help curriculum planners implement case activities in the chemistry curriculum as a way of relating it’s learners to real life experiences.
- Be of benefits to researchers as it will provide a valid working document in investigating other areas not covered by this study.
1.7 Delimitations of the Study
The study was on case method and academic achievement in practical chemistry in Uyo L.G.A. The study covers all chemistry students in some selected Government Secondary Schools in Uyo L.G.A. However it was confined to senior secondary three (SS3) and the academic year was 2018/2019.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The limitations that the researcher encountered during this research were;
- Time Constraint: The time given to carry out this study was not enough for a wider scope of the study.
- Funds: The research also had financial problems in the cost of running the research work.
- Most laboratories used for this research were poorly equipped.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Case Method: Is a method of teaching where the students review a real world situation (a case) that posse a thought provoking problem or dilemma. Example identification and naming of unlabelled reagents.
Academic Achievement: Represents the performance out comes that indicate the extent to which a person understands what has been taught. It is being measured by an achievement test.