EFFECT OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND PARENT TOWARDS GIRLS EDUCATION
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EFFECT OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND PARENT TOWARDS GIRLS EDUCATION (A CASE STUDY OF SOKOTO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, SOKOTO STATE)
This study looks into the effects of unemployment and parent attitude towards girls education in Sokoto South Local Government Area, Sokoto State. The rate at which unemployed youths and parents are roaming the street constitute a social malice to the country as a whole. The data was collected from both primary and secondary sources using descriptive approach of previous researches and analysis of scholars to gather empirical data. The findings revealed that unemployment among other factors in Nigeria poses a major challenge to the girl child education, which has created much tension and hatred between the male and the female children in the family. Also, the findings revealed that unemployment in Nigeria increased from 21.1% in 2010 to 23.9% in 2011 with youth unemployment at over 50%. From 2011 to 2013 there is an increase of 16% unemployment growth rate in Nigeria. Significantly, the impact of this study is that government should create labour market that work better for parents to be gainfully employment.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world with a population of 154, 729,000 citizens. Our nominal GDP is $ 207.166 billion and we have a nominal per capital income of $140,011. Nigeria also has the second largest economy in Africa, if one may ask, is this country not blessed? Yet, it is still plagued by high rate of unemployment which had been one of our major problems in recent years. Both government and the private sector had discussed this issue at forums and conferences but have not found a solution to it. Its continued existence has been linked to lack of power supply and financial empowerment for the masses.
It is a well-established fact from cross-section and longitudinal studies that unemployment depresses mental well-being and lowers life satisfaction for the jobless persons more than any other single characteristic, including important negative ones such as divorce and separation (Clark and Oswald, 1994; Darity and Goldsmith, 1996; Winkelmann and Winkelmann, 1998; Clark, 2003; Powdthavee, 2011). Yet there has been surprisingly little research on the effects of unemployment on the psychological reasoning and well being of the girl child with respect to education.
While previous research has shown that unemployment hurts less psychologically for people whose spouse is also unemployed (Clark, 2003), much less is known about the association between parental unemployment and their attitude towards their female children education.
The attitude of parents towards girls education is a topic many people frown at in the developing and undeveloped countries. It is regarded of them as taboo that female education is very important to enable matured persons especially parents acquint themselves with the efficacy of female education in the position sense. Female education has been misunderstood by many as a means of sexual harassment due to ignorance.
The topic is considered to be paramount, as well as an important mechanism because secondary schools and higher institution of learning in our country Nigeria have been plaque with the problems of poor moral decadence among females in academics. Attempts have been made to define female education as parenthood education, education for effective or hygienic living with feminine gender as an integral Inseparable part of the individual. Female education helps the individual to develop the fullest creative skills as sexual human being at all stages of life.
As the name implies, it is perceived as the provision of female awareness or knowledge to people in the conceptual nitty gritty, female education is a comprehensive programme of individual development right from infancy to the declining year. It is a programme designed to produce fully and charismatic desirable attitudes, values and moral behaviors amongst female, therefore the concepts of female education is broad in scope as it encompasses parent’s employment status, family and society.
Parents are mainly influenced by traditional beliefs regarding the ideal roles of women and girls in the society. Traditionally, the only roles available to women were those of wives and mothers. Women were thus seen as nurturers and mainly as providing support for men who worked to provide for the family.
Being physically weaker, women were therefore also perceived being less Capable and requiring the protection and guidance of men. These attitudes have prevailed even in current times when socio-economic changes have made tertiary education necessary, not just for the purpose of providing income earning opportunities with the degrees but also for the potential to contribute to the improvement in the standards of living of individuals, families and communities. These traditional beliefs have been found to foster negative attitudes which limit parents and even community support for the education of the girl child in the tertiary institutions. Identification and examination of these attitudes is necessary before any decision can be made on what should and can be done to bring about change. However, it is an indisputable fact that without parents support, any efforts to improve girls participation and the number of females in tertiary institutions, will be greatly hampered.
It was of the opinion of the researcher that one of the main reasons for the low enrollment of female children in education is because of this negative attitude and high rate of unemployment. This negative attitude was also attributed to traditional socio-cultural beliefs regarding gender roles and abilities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, men and women have their own role to play for the benefit of the society. Men are said to be the head of the family while the women took care of the children and house. This practice has been on for generations. If thereby stands as a draw back to girls in many fields especially in education.
Education of boys is considered more paramount because they are made to look after their parents and family, while the girls would be married out. This attitude of parents towards the girl child education is still very common especially among unemployed parents. Some parents still believe that secondary school education is the highest they can afford and offer their female children because they see them as temporal members of the family.
Education of boys is considered more important because they are made to look after their parents and family, while the girls would be married out. This attitude of parents towards the girl child education is still very common especially in the native parts of Nigeria. Some parents still believe that secondary school education is the highest they can afford and offer their female children because they see them as temporal members of the family.
Parents, especially fathers are often concerned about the continuation of their names, because in cases where a wealthy man dies his properties and assets are only shared among his male offspring’s
Recent studies have shown that the backwardness of female education in Nigeria is mostly caused by the inability of the parents to fund the education due to financial problems. therefore this study intend to examine the effect of joblessness and parent attitude towards girls education in Ilela local government area, Sokoto state.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of unemployment and parent attitude towards girls education. In line with the statement of problems, the study will also seek to achieve the following minor objectives:
- To investigate the effect of unemployment and parent attitude towards girls education in Sokoto South Local Government Area, Sokoto State.
- To look into exposing critical, creative and caring thinking as the solution to unemployment in Sokoto South Local Government Area, Sokoto State.
- To enlighten and educate parents on the need to encourage the education of the girl child as most of them turns out to be more supporting than the male child of today.
- To correct the effect and implication of despising the girl child education and to assist parents, employed and unemployed inclusive on the need to acquaint sibling on the essence of female education for a brighter tomorrow.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study will provide answers to the following research questions;
1. Is the level of unemployed parent in Sokoto South Local Government Area high?
2. Are there consequences of parental unemployment to the girl child education in the Sokoto state?
3. Is the Government tackling the unemployment plague in the state?
4. Does the attitude of parents affect their support financially and otherwise?
5. What is the attitude of employed and unemployed parents towards the education of their female children in sokoto south local government area?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HO: the level of unemployed parent in Sokoto South Local Government Area low
H1: The level of unemployed parent in Sokoto South Local Government Area high
Ho: There is no significant consequence of parent unemployment to the girl child education in the Sokoto south local government area
H2: There is a significant consequence of parent unemployment to the girl child education in the Sokoto south local government area
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be beneficial in many ways when completed; it will serve as a tool for further research work for other researchers who will endeavor to carry out research in the same field in future. The study will help government to proffer solutions as regard unemployment and its effects on parents and the girl child’s education in Nigeria as a whole. It will further help scholars towards the advancement of knowledge, such as reference material, term paper topic, and symposium and seminar presentation.
The study will serve as a guide and important tool in the fight against high level of unemployment. It will also serve as a base or premises for other researchers to challenge, amend, and provide corrections to the research work. The study will provide answers to various arms of governments in Nigeria about unemployment and its causative factors in the society, especially it consequences towards the girl child’s education.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study of this nature effect of unemployment and parent attitude towards girls education is so broad and complex in nature, so to gather vital information within the frame work of this study the researchers centers specifically on unemployed parents in Sokoto South Local Government Area, Sokoto State.
A wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constraints, this constraints pose a lot of limitations to this work.
Time: the time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study.
Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effect: is defined as a change which is as a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Unemployment: In economics, unemployment refers to the condition and extent of joblessness within an economy, and is measured in terms of the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed persons divided by the total civilian labour force. Hence, unemployment is the condition of not having a job often referred to as being out of work, or unemployed.
Attitude: It’s a mental position or emotional feelings about products, services, ideas, issues and institutions.
Parents: Both father and mother.
Female children: The sex that bear offspring or produce egg.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the conceptual and empirical reviews on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.
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