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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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                                     CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background of the Study

The primary aim of teaching and learning of Christian religious studies is not based on instructing youths in a particular faith or ideology with a view of securing their commitments but rather, it is educating youths for the understanding of the Christian faith (Ilori, 1992). Again, the role of teaching and learning of Christian religious studies (CRS) is concerned about helping the youths to understand the nature of the present secular and pluralistic society and to help them think rationally about the state and place of Christian religion in the society. This is with a view to enable them chose objectively between the many conflicting religious beliefs and practices prevalent in the society today.

Christian Religious Studies refers to the systematic study of Christian faith as contained in the Old Testament and New Testament of the Holy Bible (Baiyeri, 2010). It is a field of study that is taught at primary, post-primary and tertiary institutions of learning in Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria stipulates that “instruction at all levels has to be oriented towards inculcating moral and spiritual principle in interpersonal and human relations” (FRN, 2004). Christian religious studies is one of the subjects in the school’s curriculum and it is offered in the West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE). It is one of the Social Subject subjects. Christian religious studies is a subject because it is an approach to problems in other subjects.

The issue of poor academic performance of secondary school students in CRS examination has been attributed to some factors such as the school environment, peer influence, the family dynamics, etc (Ekeh and Njoku, 2013). But, of all these factors, the researcher feels that roleplay method of teaching play key role in relation to students’ academic achievement in CRS. Student’s mass failure in C.R.S is also affected by numerous factor including gender, age, teaching faculty, students schooling, father/guardian social economic status, residential area of students, medium of instructions in schools, tuition trend, daily study hour and accommodation as hostelries or day scholar. Many researchers conducted detailed studies about the factors contributing student poor performance at different study levels. Graetz (1995) suggested “A student educational success contingent heavily on social status of student’s parents/ guardians in the society. Considine and Zappala (2002) noticed the same that parent’s income or social status positively affects the student test score in examination.

According to Minnesota (2007) “the higher education performance is depending upon the academic performance of graduate students. Durden and Ellis quoted Staffolani and Bratti, (2002) observed that “the measurement of students previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of students future achievement, this refers that as the higher previous appearance, better the student’s academic performance in future endeavours. It is generally assumed that the students who showed better or higher performance in the starting classes of their studies also performed better in future academic years at degree level.

Parent’s socio-economic condition, which includes parents’ academic and professional qualification, revenue and occupational affiliation, is also associated with academic gain of students. The results of many studies confirmed that academic achievement of students is contingent upon parent’s socio-economic condition. So the students belonging from higher social economical backgrounds will perform better than other students associated with low social economic backgrounds. “Social and economical status of student is generally determined by combining parents’ qualification, occupation and income standard” (Jeynes, 2002). Among many research studies conducted on academic achievement, it is not very surprising to observe that Socio-economic status is one of the main elements studied while predicting academic performance.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been observed that in most schools, students fail in their SSCE in Christian religious studies. The past performance of students in Borogo local Government Area in Christian religious studies is too deteriorating and not impressive. The record shows that while a few school show good performance in the subject others have not performed so-well. While a few schools recorded as high as an average of 80% over a period of many years. The majorities fall below 40% over many years. The majority of the schools performance in Christian religious studies is very poor. According to WAEC Chief Examiners’ reports in 2012 and 2013, there is low performance of students in CRS in WASCE, 62.03% failed while 37.9% passed. The number that failed is greater than the number that passed. The continuous poor achievement of secondary school students in CRS over the decades could be attributed to poor methods of teaching. The question is what are the causes of mass failure in Christian religious studies in Senior Secondary Schools?  It is likely that among the reasons, the following are noticeable, Lack of textbooks for students, Lack of instructional materials, Inadequate qualified teachers to teach the students, the libraries are not well equipped, students attitude towards the subject. A lot of reasons have been adduced to this, which led to the study on the causes of mass failure in Christian religious studies in senior secondary school examination in Bauchi State.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the causes of mass failure in Christian religious studies in senior secondary school examination in Bauchi State. The specific objectives of the study includes:

  1. To find out the factors responsible for mass failure of students in C.R.S examinations in Borogo LGA
  2. To ascertain the effect of teaching methods on students’ academic performance in CRS examination.
  3. To find out the ways of improving the performance of students in CRS among secondary school in Borogo Local Government Area.
  4. To proffer possible solutions to factors that causes mass failure in Christian religious studies in senior secondary school examination in Bauchi State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are research questions would be of help in the cause of our research:

  1. Is there any significant relationship between teaching methods and Christian religious studies among students in Borogo LGA?
  2. Is there possible measures of reducing mass failure in CRS among students in Bauchi State?
  3. Is there any significant effects of learning environments on CRS senior students in Borogo LGA?
  4. Are there possible solutions to factors that causes mass failure in Christian religious studies in senior secondary school examination in Bauchi State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study would be beneficial to teachers, students, religious instructors, curriculum planners, educational administrators, and researchers. The findings of the study would help teachers to have an insight into the meaning, application and problems of teaching methods and thus change their method when the need arises for proper students’ achievement and interest in CRS in secondary schools. To students, the study would help to improve their understanding of CRS and thus adjust properly in the society through active participation in the classroom leaning which stimulate their interest and change the negative perceptions they already have in learning CRS in senior secondary levels. The findings of the study would expose the educational administrators to the importance of conducive environment in teaching and learning and thereby put these environmental conditions such as classroom building, learning materials, quality library etc, in order for proper implementation of Christian Religious Studies curriculum. They would equally be meant to understand the interactional effects of gender and teaching method and thus help teachers to initiate change where appropriate. The findings of the study as well as the concepts, theories and methods would be reference materials for researchers especially those that specialize in Christian Religious Studies.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is restricted to the causes of mass failure in Christian religious studies in senior secondary school examination in Bauchi State. Specifically Borogo Local Government Area. The teachers and students in the research study are representative sample for the study in the study area.

Limitation of the study

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also a major hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to lay hands on several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

1.8. Definition of terms

Cause: a person or thing that gives rise to an action, phenomenon, or condition.

Massive Failure: Something that is massive is very large in size, quantity, or extent.

Christian Religious Studies: Christian Religious education is the study of God’s revelation to human beings through scriptures, the person of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit (The study of the Trinity).

Senior secondary school: The senior secondary years are the years of later adolescence corresponding to the later part of secondary education. … The term “senior secondary” may also be used to refer to any institution that covers the upper part of secondary education, such as a high school.

Academic performance: academic achievement is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.



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Access Bank: Savings
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.

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