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This study was aimed at investigating family background and pupil’s academic performance in primary schools in Eket Local Education Authority; in Akwa Ibom State. To guide the study four research purposes, four research q uestions and four hypotheses were formulated. The design adopted for this study was Ex-post factor design. The population of the study consists of all primary five pupils in fifty-three public primary schools in Eket Local Education Authority. The fifty three schools hence population of seven thousand nine hundred and forty-five (7,945) pupils out of the fifty three primary schools in the zone, twelve schools was sampled using proportionate random sampling techniques. In the twelve schools, all the primary five pupils numbering eight hundred and sixteen (816) were used as the subject of the study. The research instrument was the question on family background influence (FBI), designed by the researcher and validated by experts. The reliability of the instrument was established using crunbach alpha method. The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation while t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The reliability coefficient was 0.69. The findings of the study revealed that: pupil’s from educated parents perform a more than those from uneducated parents in academics; pupils from high-income status parent enjoy considerable advantage in academic performance than those of low income status parents because their parents were able to afford necessary materials and equipment needed for effective learning in the school. Based on these findings, the study recommended among others that parents should diversify their sources of income to be able to provide fund for their children’s education. 


CHAPTER                                        TITLE                                                            PAGE

Cover page                                                   i

Title Page                                                      ii

Declaration                                                   iii

Certification                                                  iv

Dedication                                                     v

Acknowledgements                                                 vi

Abstract                                                          vii

Table of Contents                                        viii

List of Tables                                                xi

List of Appendices                                       xii


1.1       Background of the Study   –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem   –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.3       Purpose of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           9

1.4       Significance of the Study   –           –           –           –           –           –           9

1.5       Scope and Delimitation of the Study       –           –           –           –           10

1.6       Research Questions           –           –           –           –           –           –           11

1.7       Research Hypotheses        –           –           –           –           –           –           11

1.8       Definition of Terms              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           12


2.1       Conceptual Framework      –           –           –           –           –           –           13

2.1.1   Concept of Family   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           13

2.1.2   Concept of Family Background    –           –           –           –           –           15       

2.1.3   Concept of Performance    –           –           –           –           –           –           16

2.1.4   Concept of Academic Performance         –           –           –           –           16

2.2       Theoretical Framework       –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.2.1   Parental Attachment Theory          –           –           –           –           –           17

2.2.2   Self Determination Theory             –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.3       Empirical Studies     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.4       Literature Appraisal             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20


3.1       Research Design     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

3.2       Area of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

3.3       Population of the Study      –           –           –           –           –           –           24

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique            –           –           –           –           24

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection      –           –           –           –           –           25

3.6       Validation of the Instrument          –           –           –           –           –           26

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.8       Administration of the Instrument   –           –           –           –           –           27

3.9       Method of Data Analysis    –           –           –           –           –           –           27


4.1       Research Questions           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

4.1.1   Research Question 1          –           –           –           –           –           –           29

4.1.2   Research Question 2          –           –           –           –           –           –           31

4.1.3   Research Question 3          –           –           –           –           –           –           32

4.1.4   Research Question 4          –           –           –           –           –           –           34

4.2       Testing of Hypotheses        –           –           –           –           –           –           35

4.2.1   Hypotheses One      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

  1. Hypotheses Two      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

4.2.3   Hypotheses Three   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

4.2.4   Hypotheses Four     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

4.3       Discussion of the Findings            –           –           –           –           –           –           38


5.1       Summary of the Findings  –           –           –           –           –           –           40

5.2       Conclusion   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

5.3       Implication of the Study      –           –           –           –           –           –           42

5.4       Recommendations –           –           –           –           –           –           –           44

5.5       Suggestion for the Further Research      –           –           –           –           44

REFERENCES        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

APPENDENCES     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51




1.1       Background of the Study

            Education is the process of transmitting what is worthwhile to the members of the society. According to Okafor (2014). Education embraces all those experiences of the individual through which knowledge is acquired and intellect enlightened. For Nwabachili and Egbue (2015) education is what goes on from one generation to another. In this context, education is the process of socializing the child to grow up as a fulfilled member of the society through informal, formal and non-formal process. Informal education is the process of acquiring knowledge about the environment and beyond through living with one another. According to Nwabachili and Egbue (2015) formal education is a consciously planned form of socialization in a formal setting such as school. The stress that non-formal education involve all those systematic programmes and processes of education and training that is done outside formal education settings. All these forms of education cannot be achieved without the influence of the family.

            Family is the first social environment that the child finds him/herself. According to Clifford (2016) family remains the primary environment of the child. The author emphasized that family environment has more chances of increasing or decreasing the intellectual achievement of the child. Akubuo and Okolo (2010), defined family as a small kinship structural group with the key function of natural socialization of the new born. Similarly, in Okunniyi (2010), family is defined as a primary social group of parents, offspring and possibly other members of the household.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

            Over the years, there has been poor performance of pupils in Eket Local Education Authority in both internal and external examinations. Also, parents with low level of income, finds it difficult to provide learning materials such as note books, text books, school bags, sandals good uniform, etc for their ward(s). This is due to the fact that they don’t earn high and even if they do, these materials are too expensive for them to afford it. They therefore leave the child to cope the way he or she can with the available learning materials. This alone makes most of the children in these areas (zone) not to perform very well in their academics.

            Furthermore, most children came from a very large family size, where the parents finds it uneasy to cater for all the academic needs of children, due to several demands  from both the children and other family members. Where the family size is large, and the income level of the parent is low, the tendency of the parents providing for the children cannot be guaranteed. This is because, as the family size is large so also diverse problems exist in the home. Moreover, as the family size is large, most parents would not be able to go through each child’s work before and after school as they might consider it as waste of time.

1.3       Purpose of the Study  

            The objectives of the study were to find out the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Eket Local Education Authority: These specific objectives were to determine the:

  1. Influence of parent’s level of education on pupils academic performance.
  2. Influence of parental occupation on pupil’s academic performance
  3. Influence of parental income on pupil’s academic performance.
  4. Influence of family size on pupil’s academic performance.

1.4       Significance of the Study

            Theoretically the findings of this study were considered significant because it would help in providing empirical information in identifying and explaining the various family background variable and influence of the variable on pupil’s academic performance. This will help in better understanding of the phenomenon. Moreover, it is expected that the findings will help to explain the functionality of the theoretical posits of Maslow’s motivational theory.

            Practically, the findings could be useful to the following: the teachers, pupils, school guidance, counsellors, parents, Parents Teacher Association (PTA), educational administrators and the society at large.

            The findings would also help teachers to realize the necessity of individualizing their teaching by structuring their teaching methods and instructional resources to take care of the divergent parental backgrounds of the pupils.

            The finding would of great value to pupils because they will realize that their performance might not necessarily be their fault alone especially those from low status families. Such knowledge would go a long way to reduce frustration in the pupils and also reduce drop-outs which occur as a result of frustration. Rather, the pupils should be made to adjust and help themselves by studying hard at home.

            Through the research, parent would improve their educational standard so as to influence their children’s academic performance.

            They would also improve their socio-economic status and also learn to motivate their children academically.

            They findings would help educational administrators to make policies that will regulate equal educational opportunities for all children irrespective of their family background in the distribution of equipment, facilities and amenities to schools.

            The findings of this study would help the society at large in identifying how family environmental variables such as what parents’ level of education, parents’ income, parents’ occupation, parents’ motivation and family size on pupil’s academic performance. This will act as a check on increasing low academic performance among pupils, occasioned by the fact that some parents, teachers and counselors do not have adequate knowledge/input required of them.

1.5       Scope and Delimitation of the Study

            This work was limited to primary schools in Eket Local Education Authority of Akwa Ibom State.

            The context scope of this study was limited to the influence of family background and pupils academic performance in primary schools with particular emphasis to parental level of education; parental occupation, parental income and family size.

1.6       Research Questions

            The following questions were raised to test the study:

  1. To what extent does parent’s level of education influence on the academic performance of pupils?
  2. To what extent does parents occupation influence pupil’s academic performance?
  3. To what extent does parent’s income level influences pupil’s academic performance?
  4. To what extent family type (size) has influence on pupil’s academic performance?

1.7       Research Hypotheses

            For this study to have a focus, the following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant different in the mean ratings of pupils in urban and rural schools on the influence of parental level of education on pupil’s academic performance.
  2. There is no significant different in the mean ratings of pupils in urban and rural schools on the influence of parental occupation on pupil’s academic performance.
  3. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of pupil’s in urban and rural schools on the influence of parent’s income on student’s academic performance.
  4. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of pupils in urban and rural schools on the influence of family size on student’s academic performance

1.8       Definition of Terms 

            The researcher defined the following terms in regard to findings;

Family: A body of people sharing the same blood.

Background: The condition of someone or something.

Academic Performance: It is the extent a learner has attained in cause of studying.

Pupils: Name given to children in primary school.

Primary School: It is an institution for learning before entering secondary school.



Account Number: 0709546102

Access Bank: Savings                
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.

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