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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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This study was designed to determined “Impact of Communication on Small and Medium Enterprises in Uyo Metropolis”. The study’s design was the survey and the study’s tool was questionnaire. The study’s population was 809 while the sample was 268 which was determined from the study’s population through Yaro Yammani. Data for the study were presented using tables. In analyzing the obtained data, the researcher adopted simple percentage and statistical tool. Findings revealed that effective communication was not practiced in small and medium enterprises in Uyo metropolis. Also, communication hierarchies were not really emphasized, staff promptness to meeting was low and feedback process was lacking. Based on this survey, the study recommended that effective communication should be practiced in small and medium enterprises in Uyo. Then, communication hierarchies should be observed and feedback should be practiced. 



          Effective communication helps in product development, customers relations, employee management and any every aspect of business. i.e “if the management are formed, and engaged with effective communication with the staff, then their communication will be strong”. It also leads to news ideas and innovations.   

          Effective organizational communication leads to strong team to work together to achieve a company goal.  i.e “it will provide management the knowledge, structure and positive work environment, they need to feel comfortable dealing with conflict and resolving issues effectively.

          Effective communication organization increase productivity, decrease employee turnover and improves office atmosphere. i.e “if involves commitment so the management must communicate effectively”. It also grabs the attention of the target audience.

          The message needs to have a goal, often in a clearly stated objective known to target audience and plan the message accordingly.


  • Relationship between management and staff is very good, it contribute immensely to their organizational success and productivity.
  • It attributed every good relationship between management and staff to communicate.
  • They do not placed emphasis on organizational in terms of hierarchy.
  • Staff must respond effectively to communicated message.


Communication is the foundation of every relationship between people, whether at home, work, or business. “Without effective communication there can be misunderstanding, problems and conflict among staff.


             Uyo is the South South of Nigeria and is the capital of Akwa Ibom State. A major oil producing State in Nigeria. The City became a capital of Akwa Ibom State in “23 September, 1987”. Uyo is a fast growing State.  Poor government and Institutional support are the problems facing in Uyo metropolis because small and medium enterprise operates in Uyo due to the inability to establish major companies.


          It is a relationship, interaction on, the process by which massage are transformed from the sender to the receiver. “When information is sent and received it must have a feedback”.        

  •  Peter Drucker

Saw communication as “perception”, expectation, involvement and experience. “He saw communication as an attribute, actions that covers all aspect of human behaviour.

  • Claude shanon and Wanen Weaver

He saw communication as the procedures by which one mind affect the other e.g “It involved not only written and oral speech, but also music, the ballet and human behaviour.

  • Prof OPubor

It is the sharing of experience. “It could come during interaction or story telling.   

  • Charles Osgood

He sees communication as a signal which can be transmitted over the channel connecting them.


          It is the capacity to recognized and understand your own emotions and those of the person you’re communicating with. “It is not just understanding the words of the information being communicated, but also understand how the speaker feels about what they’re communicating. E.g

  • Save time: To avoid conflict and misunderstanding
  • Make the speaker Feel, Heard and Understood: It helps to build a stronger connection between you.
  • Create an environment where everyone feels Safe: To express ideas opinion and feelings in a creative way.
  • Relieve Negative Emotions: When the speaker feels that he/she has been truly head it can help to relieve negative feelings.    


          If your aim is fully understood it will connect with the other person, listening effectively well often comes naturally.

  • Focus fully on the Speaker:  If you find it hard to concentrate to a speaker, try repeating their works over.    
  • Avoid interrupted: While the speaker is communicating concentrate and don’t let your mind be distracted.
  • Avoid Seeming Judgmental: It communicate with someone, you don’t have to agree with their ideas and opinions, “You need to set aside judgment in order to understand the person”.
  • Show interest: Smile at the person make sure your posture is open and free.

Effective of communication Skills, managing Stress 

          Stress can help you perform under pressure. “It can prevent effective communication by disrupting your capacity.

To Deal with Stress during Communication

  •   Take a moment and clam down
  • Manage to take few deep break
  • Recognize when you’re becoming stressed e.g your body will set you to know if you’re stressed as you communicate.
  • Look for Humor in the Situation: Find a way to listen mood by sharing joke or amusing stories.


          It plays an important role in the way we communicate at home and work. It also the way you feel, more than the way you think. Emotional Awareness Provides the tools needed for understanding both yourself and other people and the real massage they are communicating to you.


          It is the consciousness of your moment-to-moment emotional experience and ability to manage all of your feeling appropriately in Emotional Communication.

  • Building strong relationship and resolve conflict
  • Communicate clearly
  • Stay motivated and understand with the person you  are interacting with
  • Understand yourself and what you really want.


  • Language Barriers: When communicating the terminology used in a message may act as a barriers if not fully understood by the receiver. i.e message that include jargons and abbreviations will not be understood by a receiver who is not familiar with the terminology used.
  • Psychological Barriers: Is a state of the receiver will influence on how the message will receive e.g if someone is stressed they may be thinking their personal concerns and not willing to listen to the message.      
  • Physiological Barriers: This may come form the receiver physically e.g a receiver with less hearing may not understand entirely a spoken conversation especially if there is significant background noise.
  • Systematic Barriers: This is when there is lack of understanding of the roles and responsibilities for communication.
  • Attitudinal Barriers: Are actions and behaviour that prevent people from communicating effectively. It may result from personality conflicts, poor management and resistance to danger.
  • Ambiguity: Doubtful words leads to ambiguity. i.e one should select the right word for the occasion.
  • Poor Listening: This comes from absent mindedness and negative mental attitude. “It may lead people to hasty and early conclusion.


  • Use follow up
  • Communicate something that is valued by the receiver 
  • Understand the physical environment when communicating
  • Examine the purpose of communication.
  • Consider the contents and tone of the massage.
  • Do not overreact while communicating.     


  • Clarify Purpose of the Message: Sender of the message must clarify in their mind what they want to communicate.
  • Use Intelligible Encoding: Encoding and decoding be done with symbols that are familiar to both the sender and the receiver of the message.
  • Consult others’ Views: Planning a communication should not be done in a vacuum. i.e other people should be consulted and encouraged to participate, in order to collect of facts and analyze the message.
  • Consider Receivers’ Needs:  It is important to consider the needs of the receivers of the information.
  • Get Feedback


          No society or organization can exist for more than few days without communication an organization.

  • Information and presuation
  • For Identity Purpose
  • To aid to understanding and commitment.      


  • It makes work to go on through it orders and instruction
  • It makes work purposeful by giving meaning to job
  • It satisfy the need for discussion for solution of problems
  • It is one of the basic tools for management
  • It is the essence of new business.


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