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ABSTRACT

 

This study assessed the Impact of Resource Allocation on Leadership Performance of principals in Secondary Schools in Kano State, Nigeria. Five research objectives were raised for the study among which are to: ascertain the impact of qualified personnel allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; determine the impact of funding allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; and assess the impact of material resource allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State. These objectives were formulated into five corresponding research questions and hypotheses. The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study consisted of 546 principals and 5,096 teachers. A sample size of 55 principals, 509 teachers and 10 Ministry of Education Officials were used in the study. An open-ended type of questionnaire was used to generate data for the study. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha technique which showed a reliability value of 0.79. The bio-data of the respondents were analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of tables, frequency counts and percentages, while the research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation. All the five null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at P = 0.05 (5%) level of significance. Findings among others showed that there is significant impact in the leadership performance of principals, teachers and MOE officials based on the qualified personnel allocation, funding allocation, material resource allocation as well as time resource allocation. Recommendations were made, among others, that Kano State government should realign staffing structures to accommodate the strengths and weaknesses of existing staff, and find ways to recruit and retain quality staff through compensation and support systems. Also, government at local and state level should ensure that administrative staff develop financial management skills for tem to understand the limits and flexibility of fund allocation sources in school management.

 

  TABLE OF CONTENTS  
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Declaration iii
Certification iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgements vi
Abstract vii
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xi
List of Appendices xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Research Hypotheses 8
1.6 Basic Assumptions 9
1.7 Significance of the Study 9
1.8 Scope of the Study 12
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Conceptual Framework 14
2.2.1 Resource Allocation 14
2.2.2 Leadership and Performance 19
2.2.3 Qualified Personnel 26
2.2.4 Funding 27
2.2.5 Material Resource 27
2.2.6 Time Resource 28
2.2.7 Curriculum Resource 28
2.3 Theoretical Framework 29
2.4 Criteria for Allocating Resources 30
2.5 Allocation of Human Resources 43

 

2.6 Allocation of Material Resources 53
2.7 Allocation of Financial Resources 57
2.8 Time Allocation 68
2.9 Secondary School Education in Nigeria 76
2.10 Empirical studies 78
2.11 Summary 81
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  
3.1 Introduction 83
3.2 Research Design 83
3.3 Population of the Study 83
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 84
3.5 Instrumentation 85
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 86
3.5.2 Pilot Study 86
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 86
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 87
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis 87
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS  
4.1 Introduction 88
4.2 Bio-data of Respondents 88
4.3 Response to Research Questions 89
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 98
4.5 Summary of Hypotheses Testing 105
4.6 Summary of Major Findings 106
4.7 Discussions of Findings 106

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

5.1 Summary 110
5.2 Conclusions 111
5.3 Recommendations 112
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study 112
  References 114
  Appendices 125

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1         Background to the Study

 

Secondary education which serves as a link between primary and tertiary levels, is vital to national development. Resource allocation at this level is very vital to achievement of educational objectives and increase leadership performance. In ether words, leadership produces change that includes establishing direction through visioning, aligning people with the vision and strategies; motivating and inspiring staff. Resource allocation is a process and strategy involving an organisation deciding where scarce resources should be used in the production of goods or services. The study of educational resource allocation has traditionally focused on the distribution of state and federal revenues among schools with particular attention to equity in school funding.

 

Fairness in resource allocation is not only important for ensuring equity in education opportunities, it is also related to the performance of the education system as a whole. But in many school systems, resources are not allocated equitably regardless of their socio-economic profile. On average, disadvantaged schools tend to have smaller classes, they also tend to be more likely to suffer from teacher shortages, and shortages or inadequacy of educational materials and physical infrastructure, than advantaged schools (Pablo, 2014). Also in general, schools with more socio-economically disadvantaged students tend to have lower-quality resources than schools with more advantaged students.

 

The sustenance of qualitative secondary education depends largely on adequate allocation of physical and material resources in the schools; such as physical facilities like spacious and well ventilated classrooms, adequately equipped laboratories and technical workshops, well-stocked libraries, assembly halls, recreational ground, farm

 

 

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land, gymnasia, health centers, counseling rooms, staff offices and conveniently placed urinals and latrines with sufficient allocation of material resources which are made up of items of furniture, laboratory materials (consumable and nonconsumable), motor vehicles, instructional tools, books and other stationery items as well as utilities such as electric power, gas and potable water in the schools will enhance organizational performance; and most important, effectiveness in achieving desired outcomes (David & Yongmei, 2012).

 

This assumes that qualitative secondary education can be effectively sustained if the schools are well funded. As succinctly put by Afolabi, Oyewusi and Ajayi (2008), ―the success of any secondary school depends upon the resources available to it. Money is very important in this respect because by it, all other vital elements in the school can be obtained such as buildings, purchase of equipment, payment of teachers‘ salaries and allowances and running expenses‖. They also maintained that school leaders cannot survive or carry out its functions effectively without adequate financial resources at its disposal. Money is needed to pay staff, maintain the plant and keep services going. In his own contribution on the importance of funding the school system, Mussazi (1982) in Afolabi, Oyewusi and Ajayi (2008) remarked that: ―for schools to function effectively, they need sufficient money, money is needed to buy textbooks, establish new buildings, pay teachers‘ salaries, buy science equipment and maintain other services that are required by a school to carry out its functions as an educational institutions‖. Of all the multifarious problems facing secondary school administration in Kano state today, none is as persistent and as agonizing as the one relating to the allocation and management of the available resources in the schools.

In view of the above, this study is specifically set out to ascertain the impact of resource allocation on leadership performance in senior secondary schools in Kano State.

 

1.2         Statement of the Problem

 

School leaders experience difficulty in deciding the balance between higher order tasks designed to improve staff, student and school performance (leadership), routine maintenance of present operations (management) and lower order duties (administration). The increased responsibilities and accountability of school leadership are creating the need for effective resource allocation, both within schools and across schools. School boards also face many new tasks. While stakeholders consider resource allocation vital for effective school leadership, these practices remain rare and often unclear; and those involved are not always recognized for their tasks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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As the key intermediary between the classroom, the individual school and the education system as a whole, effective school leadership is essential to improve the efficiency and equity of schooling. Within each individual school, leadership can contribute to improve student learning by shaping the conditions and climate in which teaching and learning occur. Funding may be another fundamental factor in relations to resources, availability and accessibility of fund in a giving organisation is not just enough rather, proper management and utilization of such funds is highly crucial especially in an organisation like school. Observation shows that most secondary school in Kano State may likely be having problem of mismanagement especially management of funds (Shoshani, 2001). This could be as a result of corruption, political involvement in education, appointment of unqualified personnel to handle financial sector in the school. Shortage of facilities (computer) that will man the affairs of assessing, controlling and keeping record related to financial expenditure.

 

Of all the numerous problems facing secondary school administration in Kano State today, none is as persistent and as agonizing as the one relating to the allocation of resources in the schools (Monk & Hussain, 2000). The recent free education in Kano State has led to the rapid expansion of the secondary school system. It is no gainsaying that such rapid expansion of the school system will bring about high demand for more school buildings, more qualified and competent teachers and clerical staff and instructional facilities for effective teaching and learning in the schools. Therefore, one of the most effective ways of sustaining free qualitative education is to supply the schools adequately with highly competent and well motivated human resources.

The fact is that one of the major factors maximizing the gulf between educational goals and accomplishments has been the way resources have been allocated. Following the above stated problems, this study sought to ascertain the impact of resource allocation on leadership performance in senior secondary schools in Kano state.

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

 

This study was set to achieve the following objectives:

 

  1. Ascertain the impact of qualified personnel allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

  1. Determine the impact of funding allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

  1. Assess the impact of material resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

  1. Investigate the impact of time allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; and

 

  1. Find out the impact of curriculum resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State.

 

 

 

1.4         Research Questions

 

In pursuance of the objectives of this study, the following research questions were formulated for the study:

 

  1. What impact does qualify personnel allocation have on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?

 

  1. In what way do funding allocation impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?

 

  1. What is the impact of material resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?

 

  1. What is the impact of time allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?

 

  1. How does curriculum resources allocation impact leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State?

 

1.5         Research Hypotheses

 

The following null hypotheses were postulated for this study:

 

HO1.   There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and MOE officials on the impact of qualified personnel allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

HO2.   There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and MOE officials on the impact of funding allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

HO3.   There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and MOE officials on the impact of material resources allocation on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

 

 

1.6         Basic Assumptions

 

The study was carried out with the assumptions that:

 

  1. When qualified personnel are allocated to school‘s leadership performance of principals in secondary schools will be improved;

 

  1. Adequate fund allocation may impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

  1. Adequate material resources allocation will impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State;

 

  1. Good use of time allocation is assumed to have impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State; and

 

  1. Effective use of curriculum resources is assumed to have positive impact on leadership performance of principals in secondary schools in Kano State.

 

1.7         Significance of the Study

 

Leadership is commonly seen as an important variable affecting organizational performance. Leadership is a broader concept where authority to lead does not reside only in one person, but can be distributed among different people within and beyond the school. School leadership can encompass people occupying various roles and functions

such as principals, deputy and assistant principals, leadership teams, school governing boards and school-level staff involved in leadership tasks.

 

Findings of this study will reveal the importance of resource allocation on the leadership performance in secondary schools. This study will be of significant to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, school administrators, education board, educational system and the society at large. To the students, the proper allocation of resources both in human and material would afford them the opportunity to use diverse of learning facility that would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have taught and thereby advancing their academic performance in the school.

 

Adequate allocation of resources in the school will enable teacher to make use of appropriate instructional material to supplement his/her teaching which will help enhance students innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic. There is increasing evidence that within each individual teachers, school teachers can contribute to improve student learning by shaping the conditions and climate in which teaching and learning occur. If resources are well allocated to the school, teachers will be highly motivated and will be prepared to face the challenges that might be posed whenever there is economic recession. Teachers must be assigned appropriate classes. The study will aid the staff development programs and accord prominent attention to it. Moreover, fringe benefits will be reviewed continually rather than tied to agitation, especially in those cases wherein such benefits are justified by economic and social pressures. Since teacher efficiency could be greatly impaired by the inadequacy of instructional resources, the study will reveal the need to adequately equipped secondary schools. The science laboratories, libraries, technical workshops and home economics rooms will as well be equipped.

1.8         Scope of the Study

 

This study impact of resource allocation on leadership performance in senior secondary schools in Kano state is aimed at investigating the opinions of principals, teachers and non-academic staff on the impact of resource allocation on leadership performance in secondary schools in Kano state. Respondents will be drawn randomly from the secondary schools within the state.

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