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INSURGENCY AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF BOKO HARAM IN THE NORTH EAST (2011-2018)

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Boko Haram Insurgency And How To Curb Future Terrorism In Nigeria By Bin  Zak – Emporium Reporters

Abstracts

This study explored the political economy of Boko Haram insurgency in the North-east of Nigeria. The central argument of this study is that, the upsurge, Boko Haram Insurgency has posed serious threats to economy and insecurities to human existence in Nigeria. Using the secondary method of data collection, the study identify among other things that Boko Haram insurgency have claimed thousands of lives and displaced inestimable properties, rendering the northeast region as the most dangerous zone in Nigeria today. That such threat affects the nation’s stability and development prospects. Using frustration aggression theory, the study identified various factors that precipitated the growth and development of Boko Haram insurgency in the northern Nigeria. These include: poverty, unemployment, bad governance, political, ethnic, religious and corruption. The study concludes that, the threats incurred by Boko Haram sects on Nigerian state have profound political and economic implications; Boko Haram insurgents today threaten the viability of Nigerian state thereby bringing about economic crises, political instability, growth and development.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                                           Page

Title page       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Declaration               –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication                 –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement               –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract                     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

Table of Content      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem   –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.3       Objectives of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.4       Research Questions –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.5       Significance of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.6       Scope and Limitations of the study           –           –           –           –           8

1.7    Definition of Terms    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1.1   Concept of Insurgency                    –           –           –           –           –           10

2.1.2  Types of Insurgency            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           14

2.2       Review of General Literature         –           –           –           –           –           16

2.2.2   Historical Background of Boko Haram in Nigeria          –           –           21

2.2.3   Boko Haram Ideology         –           –           –           –           –           –           30

2.2.4   Boko Haram Specific Goals          –           –           –           –           –           31

2.2.5   Funding of Boko Haram      –           –           –           –           –           –           32

2.2.6   Impacts of Boko Haram insurgency on crop production           –           –           34

2.2.7   Impacts of Boko Haram insurgency on livestock farming        –           42

2.2.8   Effects of Boko Haram insurgency on the economic    

 growth and   development of Nigeria      –           –           –           –           45

2.2.9   Effects of Boko Haram Insurgency on the Political

development of  Nigeria.    –           –           –           –           –           –           47

2.2.8   Factors responsible for Boko Haram Insurgency  in the North East    48

2.3       Theoretical Framework      –           –           –           –           –           –           59

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

3.2       Research Area          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

3.3       Sources of Data Collection –           –           –           –           –           –           69

3.4       Method of Data Analysis    –           –           –           –           –           –           69

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Data Analysis           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           71

4.2       Discussion of Findings        –           –           –           –           –           –           87

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           90

5.2       Conclusion    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           91

5.3       Recommendations –           –           –           –           –           –           –           92

References                                                                                                                93

Boko Haram – News, Research and Analysis – The Conversation – page 1

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country and has long been bedeviled by inter communal, interreligious, political and indeed criminal violence. Postcolonial Nigeria has no doubt witnessed and is still witnessing several forms of insurgencies in both the Northern and the Southern divides of the country, most of which have been very bloody and catastrophic.

However, in recent times, the situation has gone from bad to worst. Since the return to civil rule in 1999, Nigeria has been battling with series of violent agitations from various geo-political zones within the country. These violent agitations which have taken terror dimensions have contributed to a national security threat that is capable of disintegrating the country.

Incidents of terrorism have been reported frequently by media organizations in Nigeria and such reports are dominated by those on Boko Haram insurgency attacks. The activities of Boko Haram insurgents began around 2002, in northern Nigeria, when they functioned as a local Islamic group. Nigerians hold the assumption that the word ‘Boko Haram’, points to the group’s opposition to western education. The activities of Boko Haram insurgents in the country underwent two phases: a) (2002 to 2009) when the group mainly organized teachings and philanthropic visits to the needy); and (b) (2009 to date) the period of violent movement (Shuaibu/Salleh/Shehu 2015: 254-255). It is believed that the activities of Boko Haram was initiated by Muhammed Marwa, an Islamic purist, who believed that Islamic religion had been contaminated by westernization and all that is associated with it (Danijibo 2012; Walker 2012; Shehu 2014).

 According to Voll (2015), attacks from the Boko Haram sect have been frequent and callous due to the killing of Muhammad Yusuf, a perceived leader of the sect, by Nigerian military forces. Boko Haram insurgents have thus been driven by a desire for vengeance against the Nigerian government, Nigerian military forces, schools and religious authorities. Boko Haram insurgents kill at will and abduct unsuspecting victims in northern Nigeria and this has resulted in inhabitants of these communities, living in grave fear and uncertainty as regards who the next target would be.

Insurgent Terrorists’ attacks of Boko Haram have resulted in the killings of hundreds of people and wanton destruction of property worth billions of naira through bombings (Abimbola and Adesote 2012). This view was also shared by former Minister of Police Affairs, retired Navy Capt. Caleb Olubolade, when he acknowledged that the nation now faced new security threats that were quite different from what we used to know. NAN, (2011:5) averred inter alia:

I will rather say that we are facing new threats different from what we used to face before. But as these threats confront us, we will find solutions to them; it is now a period to look forward and overcome the challenges that face us.

On the state of the country, when people feel insecure, their appetite to invest, buy or rent from the product of investment reduces; and that is why all over the world today, any country that radiates an environment of insecurity naturally repels investment initiatives from both the international community and its own local investors. Every society across the globe has its peculiar problems and challenges in which Nigeria is not an exception. Today, insurgency is one of the greatest problems bedeviling various countries in varying degrees. It affects policies of government and also retards development (Ifijeh, 2011)

A number of analysts have variously attributed the disturbing trend to political dissatisfaction, ethnic and religious differences, perceived societal neglect and pervasive poverty among the people. Some scholar attributed insurgency to the desire of man to satisfy his inordinate ambition of lust for power and this has often led to the irrational use of violence against the state, private organizations and the general public with the ultimate objective of achieving selfish goals (Akhain, 2012).

The wanton destruction of lives and properties in the Northeast has fast deteriorating effects on Nigeria political economy. Today most Nigerians are facing the risk of being exterminated as a result of Boko Haram insurgency (Terrorism). The impacts of Boko Haram insurgency in contemporary Nigerian political economy have left behind inestimable damages to every facet of life in Nigeria mostly in the northern region. There is no gainsaying that, the upsurges of terrorism have slow down national economic growth and development, since no investors would invest in a crisis ridden nation like Nigeria (Baiyewu, 2012 cited in Titus, 2016).

According to Agomuo (2011) what started around 2006 in the far flung North East geopolitical zone of the country as a child’s play, has become a national disgrace and of international concern. The emergence of the deadly group, whose activities assumed a worrisome dimension in 2009, has continued a reign of terror in parts of the country. The inhuman activities of the Islamist sect, have unsettled the Nigerian nation to the extent that ample time and socio-economic cum political resources that ought to have been channeled to the development of the entire country is being wasted on various efforts geared towards checkmating and possibly, annihilating the insurgency in the North East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Agreed that the North-east is the epicenter of the insurgency but its effect reverberates through the entire country and has constituted a major source of underdevelopment to Nigeria.

The main thrust of this study is to discover the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria political economy. The study will make an attempt to examine the root cause of Boko haram insurgency in Nigeria and proffer ways to tackle the issue.

West Africa Seeks Islamic Veil Ban To Curb Female Suicide Bombers Amid Boko  Haram Insurgency

1.2 Statement of the problem

Insurgency is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with underdevelopment. It discourages both local and foreign investments. Also, it reduces the quality of life, destroys human and social capital, damages relationship between citizens and the states, undermining democracy, rule of law and the ability of the country to promote development.

Boko Haram insurgency in the north east of Nigeria has threatened the very existence of the living beings ranging from political, economic and socio-cultural aspects. The sect has created a Hobbesian state of nature where life is solitary, nasty, brutish and short because of nihilism and violence of men. The country’s economy has been sunk into the river of distress which had recently called for disintegration of indissoluble entity of the Nigerian state. Boko haram insurgency has created a state of palpable fear in Nigeria, while the helpless posture of the government is worrisome and intimidating (Olameji and Olusegun, 2012).

The Boko Haram insurgency has disastrous impacts on the economy of Nigeria. The group has caused Nigerians injury and pains and has brought hunger and untold hardship on the Nigerian citizens, the insurgency creates uncertainty and reduces confidence (Titus, 2016). The Nigeria government has failed to combat terrorism and ensure the safety of trade and people who could be expected to incur significant cost in terms of loss of investments and trade opportunities. Threat of Boko haram reduces trade flows; their activity continues to deepen national economic crises.

The contradictions caused by Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria manifested in its political economy ranging from abject poverty, poor quality education, lack of jobs, etc. this breeds an atmosphere of frustration expectations and these predicaments find it expression in various shades of anti-social behavior such as kidnapping, drug abuse and armed robber. The damage it has done to Nigeria’s economy is astronomical (Ogege, 2013).

The failures of the government manifested in poor socio-economic performance, causing suffering and unfulfilled expectations as well as facilitate insurgency, conflict and political instability. Today, Nigeria has witnessed unprecedented incidences of economic doldrums, societal dislocations and political upheavals. Boko haram insurgencies have led to closure of many industries, resulting in loss of employment, eradication of middle class and erosion in purchasing power of an average worker. Thus, this work set to study the impact of Boko haram insurgency on the political economy of Nigeria

What Would Make A Woman Go Back To Boko Haram? Despair | Crisis Group

1.3       Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study is to examine the impacts of Boko Haram insurgency on the political economy of the Nigeria. However, to aid the completion of the study, the following specific objectives are to be studied;

  1. To examine the effects of Boko Haram insurgency on the agricultural          production of Northeast Nigeria.
  2. Identify the factors responsible for Boko haram insurgency in northeast Nigeria.
  3. To ascertain the relationship between Boko haram operations and the political economy of Nigeria’s northeast.
  4. To make recommendations for the way out of the insurgency.

1.4       Research questions

  1. Are the impacts of Boko Haram insurgency on the agricultural production in Northeast Nigeria?
  2. Is there any relationship between Boko Haram operations and the growth of the political economy of the North east Nigeria?
  3. How can Boko Haram insurgency be tackled?

1.5 Significance of the study

            This study is a trending topic in Nigeria. This research work will serve as guide for a researcher that either wants to know about the Boko haram insurgency or conduct a research.

     It will help to enlighten foreigners who would love or has invested in the Northern part of Nigeria.

   This research work will also help international, regional or sub-regional governmental organizations; such as the United Union, African Union to know how to help each country curb their internal security issues that indirectly or directly affect(s) not only the citizens’ human rights, but the political economy of the nation; and put in place various mechanism that would prevent internal crises from escalating into a full scale war that will result to killing, and destruction of lives and properties.

Thus, if various governments become very much aware that the prevalence of insurgencies and terrorisms in various parts of the world is heavily connected to governmental lapses or bad governance and work tirelessly to adopt some of the measures suggested in this project, the scourge of insurgencies and terrorism would be immensely reduced.

1.6  Scope and Limitations of the study

        This research will cover the period between 2011 and 2018. The area of concentration is on the Northeast region of Nigeria that are affected by the scorch of Boko Haram insurgency.

                  The limitation to the study will be the fact that the issue of Boko Haram insurgency is still on-going, so there are likely to be new development which the research work may not be able to cover. It is also pertinent to admit the financial constraints and time limit that restrained this work.

1.7    Definition of terms

  1. Boko Haram: The term Boko Haram is a derivation of the Hausa word- Boko, which means Animist Education, in other words, non-Islamic education, while Haram is a word with Arabic origin that figuratively means sin but literally, forbidden. In other words, Boko Haram means western education is forbidden or is a sin.
  2. Insurgency: This is a rebellion, any guerilla, terrorist, militant, revolutionary, or any other form of irregular warfare that does not follow the rules, laws and conventions of war and is usually carried out against state.
  3. Political economy: This is the interconnectedness of political and economic factors in understanding development, dynamics in social formation. It aims at knowing what is happening to people’s income, wellbeing and livelihood.
  4. Economic stability

Real macroeconomic output can be decomposed into a trend and a cyclical part, where the variance of the cyclical series derived from the filtering technique serves as the primary measure of departure from economic stability.

  • Insecurity 

The state of being open to danger or threat; lack of protection. ‘growing job insecurity’.

 

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