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THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN CURBING INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA

| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|

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Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria – ACCORD

Abstract

This study was set to investigate the activities of book haram in eastern Nigerian. The study attempts to examine the role of women in curbing insurgency in Nigeria, using Maiduguri as a case study. The most well-known kidnapping case in international media in recent years is from 2014, where 276 mostly Christian female students were kidnapped from the Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State. Three hundred women and elders from selected villages in the study area participated in the study. Four research questions and hypotheses were generated for the study and simple percentage statistical method was used to analyse the data gathered with a structured questionnaire. The data collected was tabulated and analyzed appropriately. The statistical procedure used in this research work to analyze the data collected was the simple percentage. The study shows that since 2009, the Boko Haram insurgency and the government’s military response has killed thousands and displaced more than three million people. Boko Haram has kidnapped thousands of adults and children. Both Christians and Muslims have been victims of Boko Haram’s brutality. It was recommended that special support programs be set up, in partnership with women’s organisations, religious associations and health centres, for women victims of sexual abuse to ensure these women and their children are free from discrimination, violence and stigmatization.

More than 90 Nigerian schoolgirls missing after Boko Haram attack

                                         CHAPTER ONE

                                        INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Boko Haram which literally implies “Western education is a sin” in Hausa, has dominated most cities in the northern Nigeria since their inception in 2009 till date. Boko Haram’s major aim is to create an Islamic state, according to their leader, Abubakar Shekau has pledged allegiance to the Islamic State (IS) since 2015. Book Haram’s insurgency has dramatically affected the lives of women and girls living in the Northern region. Over 2,000 women and girls are estimated to have been abducted since the start of the insurgency. These women and girls are forced to take on domestic service, including cooking and cleaning, sexual abuse through forced marriage or as sex slaves, according to Human Right Watch. They are also trained to take on conflict service tasks, such as information gathering. Although men are more at risk of being killed, women and girls may also be killed as they are suspected to be security force collaborators or as insurgency combatants, including so-called ‘suicide’ bombers, many of whom are girls too young to consent, and women under coercion.

The Niger Delta region has also been taken over by proliferation of militant groups staging attacks on energy infrastructure at the heart of its resources. Such attacks include illegal bunkering, pipeline vandalism and oil theft that have heavily impacted on the capacity of Nigeria’s oil and gas assets to function optimally. Women and girls have been particularly affected by the conflict, including because of its devastating impact on economic activities and means of subsistence of inhabitants in the area, which adds to the severe impact due to environmental degradation by oil companies in the region. Insurgency attacks are leading to an increased rate of women and girls internally displaced, who are forced to seek shelter in various IDP camps across the nation. The number of persons internally displaced as a result of the conflict with Boko Haram is estimated to be more than 2.2 million, with 1.4 million of them in Borno State, according to a recent report by the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons on his visit to Nigeria (Chaloka, 2016).

Boko Haram Insurgency And How To Curb Future Terrorism In Nigeria By Bin  Zak – Emporium Reporters

Boko Haram has played on the common perception of women as nonviolent to effortlessly mainstream women into their operations, using them to gather intelligence, as recruiters, and promoters of radical ideologies to indoctrinate abductees and other converts in Boko Haram enclaves. In fact, the sects have allegedly preyed on women’s grievances relating to marginalisation, inequality, and alienation to recruit more women into its folds. In other cases, women are unwilling perpetrators and are forced into becoming suicide bombers, sex slaves, and forced labourers. According to (Idayat, 2017), while many resources have been dedicated to Countering Violent Extremism efforts, little attention has been paid to the role women play in the Boko Haram insurgency and responses to it in Nigeria.

The important role of women in curbing insurgency in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized as women occupy several twinning roles within the community, and their perception and reaction differs. There is a growing awareness on the significance of sensitizing and recruiting women into Prevention and Countering of violent extremism (P/CVE) in Nigeria. The United Nation Security Council in several of its resolutions has affirmed the importance of including women in P/CVE processes and their implementation. For instance, Security Council resolution 2129 reaffirms the Council’s objective to “increase its attention to women, peace and security issues in all relevant thematic areas of work on its agenda, including in threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts”. However, the counter insurgency strategy in Nigeria so far has not seized the opportunity of women’s unique roles and, importantly, their perspectives in the prevention and countering of insurgency and violent extremism (Abba, 2016). Many scholars have examined the role of women as agents and beneficiaries of global peace and stability. The place of women as perpetrators and victims of instability and war have also been explored. What is, however, missing in the literature is an understanding of the role of women in curbing insurgency in Nigeria and this study intends to fill in that gap.

Boko Haram – News, Research and Analysis – The Conversation – page 1

1.2 Problem Statement

Insurgent Terrorists’ attacks of Boko Haram have resulted in the killings of hundreds of people and wanton destruction of property worth billions of naira through bombings (Abimbola and Adesote 2012). The Nigerian government since 2015, has reached out to neighbouring African countries like Lake Chad basin, Cameroon, Chad and Niger, and, despite the army’s structural weaknesses, mobilised a more powerful military campaign against Boko Haram, the jihadist insurgency that has destabilized Nigeria’s North East since 2010 (Africa Report, 2016). According to Voll (2015), attacks from the Boko Haram sect have been frequent and callous due to the killing of Muhammad Yusuf, a perceived leader of the sect, by Nigerian military forces. Boko Haram insurgents have thus been driven by a desire for vengeance against the Nigerian government, Nigerian military forces, schools and religious authorities. Boko Haram insurgency in the north east of Nigeria has threatened the very existence of the living beings ranging from political, economic and socio-cultural aspects. The sect has created a Hobbesian state of nature where life is solitary, nasty, brutish and short because of nihilism and violence of men. The country’s economy has been sunk into the river of distress which had recently called for disintegration of indissoluble entity of the Nigerian state. Boko haram insurgency has created a state of palpable fear in Nigeria, while the helpless posture of the government is worrisome and intimidating (Olameji and Olusegun, 2012). Insurgency is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with underdevelopment. It discourages both local and foreign investments. The Boko Haram insurgency has disastrous impacts on the economy of Nigeria. The group has caused Nigerians injury and pains and has brought hunger and untold hardship on the Nigerian citizens, the insurgency creates uncertainty and reduces confidence (Titus, 2016). Today, Nigeria has witnessed unprecedented incidences of economic doldrums, societal dislocations and political upheavals. Boko haram insurgencies have led to closure of many industries, resulting in loss of employment, eradication of middle class and erosion in purchasing power of an average worker. Thus, this study set to study the role of women in curbing insurgency in Nigeria.

Boko Haram in Nigeria: The Way Forward

1.3 Aims/Objectives of the study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of women in curbing insurgency in Nigeria. The specific objectives are;

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