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Traffic Congestion - UCLA Institute of Transportation Studies



1.1        Background to the Study

It is important to emphasize the significance of Apapa Creek Road. Any traffic congestion on it will undoubtedly cause many hiccups in the logistics business, which is the primary activity on this road. Creek road is the major road that leads from the premier Apapa port (Wharf) all the way to link one of the country’s international airports (Murtala Muhammad airport, Ikeja); which is several kilometres away from each other This is one of the roads that contributes significantly to the federal government of Nigeria’s revenue. It connects Tin Can Island Port, Conmaldi, and some other container ports, and oil farm depots are located along the route. The never-ending and unending Traffic congestion caused by heavy duty shipments on it has seriously impacted activities, causing turnaround times in doing business on this corridor to be longer than necessary.

Several efforts have been made in the past and recently to find a long-term solution to this traffic problem, but no satisfactory results have been obtained. The majority of government efforts to resolve this issue have always taken the Fire Brigade Approach. Alternative routes and modes of transportation into and out of the port are desperately needed.

It is necessary to have a multi-modal transportation system. It is obvious that traffic congestion is the most significant impediment to the success of transportation/logistics businesses, particularly in this part of the world. Its importance cannot be overstated because every country is affected.

devising methodologies and techniques in combating this traffic menace.

Every day in Lagos, Nigeria, road traffic into and out of sea port complexes becomes more crowded and dangerous. Because of the small number of vehicles on our roads in the past, road transportation was not a major issue. Many traffic problems have arisen in recent years as the number of vehicles (automobiles and road vehicles) has increased. Due to the extremely high port-related activities in the area, Apapa, a city in Lagos State, would be the location and subject of this study.

This increase in vehicular activity has caused congestion and delays when entering or leaving Apapa, particularly during peak hours, necessitating further research.

alternative modes of transportation and intersection management in the area to see how they are doing in terms of directing and controlling traffic, particularly how those intersections tend to reduce conflicts along Apapa’s three major intersections – Liverpool Road, Point Road, and Wharf Road. An intersection is a point where two or more roads intersect, and it is common for vehicles to collide because it is a designated area for vehicles to turn in different directions to reach their destinations. The primary function of intersections is to direct vehicles traveling in opposite directions to their respective paths, thereby improving safety, reducing conflicts, and increasing traffic flow. Intersection safety is still a challenge for designers.

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1.2 Formulation of the Problem

Several elements Contribute to the traffic congestion into and out of the Apapa port complex. These include a lack of holding bays, which is an unprofessional way of doing business in the shipping industry. Many shipping companies in the Apapa area operate without personal stemming ports or holding bays for export shipments. This has become necessary as part of the efforts to return empty containers to Apapa Port. Another factor is import/export profitability, which is determining the cost difference between import and export shipments in relation to their economic impact, particularly profitability in most inland container depots. Against this backdrop, this research effort will include causes such as a lack of empty container holding bays and unorganized parks by container trucks before moving on to the

The impact of oil farms located along this corridor, the narrow nature of the road, particularly in the trucking of heavy duty shipments, and a lack of alternative transportation modes to road in this area have all helped to improve the current situation. On the other hand, the cumulative effect of this never-ending traffic jam is multifaceted in terms of the economic sustainability of logistics businesses along this corridor. Underutilization of the railway system, Lagos Lagoonal System, and pipeline, combined with over-reliance on road, has resulted in endemic problems on the road itself and associated infrastructures. Accidents, road mishaps, traffic congestion, and robberies, among other things, characterize the road. The various roles contribute to the poor traffic situation.

Apapa as a commercial, industrial, educational, administrative, and transportation hub. Furthermore, the city’s geographical location, the unruly behavior of drivers, the sudden increase in car ownership as a result of improved living standards, and the use of trailers and tankers have all contributed to the problem.

Because the Oshodi/Apapa Expressway is the main artery in Nigeria’s commercial capital, Lagos, it is a major link to many inlets and outlets within and outside the metropolis. This rapid growth in the population of Lagos has exerted tremendous pressure on the existing deteriorating transport infrastructure in the study area.

The Apapa road intersections were designed around four decades ago and posed no problems at the time. However, the increase in vehicular activity

– Heavy duty vehicles and cars cause significant problems because capacity was not considered when designing those road intersections, resulting in significant conflicts and delays for motorists. The increased economic activity in Apapa has resulted in a massive increase in trucks, cars, and pedestrians, causing untold hardships for road users who must contend with the same capacity of roads built decades ago. This increase in vehicular activity exacerbates conflicts at these intersections, resulting in delays, accidents, and the loss of man-hours that could have been used more efficiently.

Most businesses in Nigeria rely on Nigerian seaports for the supply of goods and materials, and more than 90% of that traffic passes through Apapa, making Apapa an important port.

a commercial hub for businesses. There is no point in denying that logistics is heavily influenced by time, but the problems caused by intersections’ ability to exit vehicles faster in Apapa are simply too great. On a busy day, a truck may take up to twelve hours to drive into Apapa from Point Road intersection, followed by another twelve hours to take delivery and exit through Point Road intersection or Liverpool.

1.3 The Study’s Aims and Objectives

The goal of this study is to critically analyze conflicts that occur within an intersection from a conflict standpoint and attempt to explain what happens and why at Apapa’s three intersections. In a similar vein, The study will concentrate on the safety of those intersections, their levels of control, and their ability to control traffic. The purpose of this research is to evaluate Lagos port accessibility critically. The goals are as follows: ascertain the traffic characteristics; as well as traffic congestion Determine the points of conflict in Apapa, conduct traffic counts, and determine the flow of traffic through these intersections. Propose alternate modes of transportation to alleviate traffic congestion in and out of Apapa.


1.4 Scope of the Research

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of traffic congestion on the Oshodi Apapa Expressway, specifically at the intersection of Toyota Junction/Ladipo Auto Dealer Market/Airport Road. The research study aims to assess traffic congestion along this route. Its consequences for road users en route to Airport Road from Oshodi, Mushin, and Apapa, as well as potential solutions. The scope of this study was limited to this section of the Oshodi-Apapa expressway in Lagos, Nigeria, due to the unique nature and state of the road, as well as the type of traffic generated on a daily basisI Essentially, the study investigated issues arising from the study’s objectives, namely, the road condition, traffic conflict point, transportation and road intersection, as well as various land use activities and socio-economic activities present along the corridor in terms of adjoining land uses that cause traffic flow delays, such as street trading, pedestrian movement, and so on.

Ensure that these activities no longer obstruct the flow of traffic along the corridor.

1.5 Importance of Research

The sustainability of a country’s economic growth is dependent on free flowing, advanced, and smart transportation systems.

The study would help to alleviate traffic congestion caused by the neglect of other modes of transportation other than the road. This study would be useful to city planners and engineers involved in intersection design because it would increase knowledge of what is required or the basic factors to consider when designing intersections. This research will also benefit students who are interested in conflict resolution in port areas. The study will also help drivers, particularly motorists and pedestrians, understand the

Causes of intersection conflicts because 95% of those accidents are caused by driver error and incorrect perceptions of other road users.

Most importantly, it would benefit business owners and logistics companies by allowing them to conduct their operations more effectively and efficiently.

This study is also significant because it will provide all road users with a better understanding of how intersections work, which will help to reduce conflicts and accidents.

1.6 Research Restrictions

This study will only look at the causes of accidents and delays that occur at the selected intersections and will not look at other causes of accidents in Apapa. The research will not go beyond conflict descriptions.

Apapa intersections and the roles they play in traffic flow.

1.7 Research Area

Lagos state is located in South Western Nigeria, between latitudes 602′ N and 604′ N, and longitudes 2045 E and 4020 E. The state is bordered by Ogun State to the north and east, the Republic of Benin to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. The state’s total land area is 3,345 kilometers, with a population of approximately 15 million people. Apapa is a major port in Lagos, Nigeria, located to the west of Lagos Island and across Lagos harbor. It is also one of the 774 local government areas in Nigeria. The study area extends from the wharf to the road. and Warehouse Road, with geographical coordinates 6 27 N 3 22 E /6.450 N 3.367 E. The local government is bounded to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the east by the Lagos Lagoon, and to the west by the Lagos Lagoon. The local government’s total landmass spans 38.5 kilometers.