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This research was carried out to examine the outstanding role music plays in a child’s development. Music is a part of development from the strains of the first lullaby. Music enters a child’s life from experiences in the family, from the media, as a part of religious worship, in the school curriculum, in play and organized recreation. Although this study does deal directly with the reason for music in society per se, we personally believe that the elements of music are a reflection of the organization of the human central nervous system. We also believe that in music and musical experience we reproduce, in an emphasized and stereotypical way, many of the behaviors and experiences necessary to human social communication. By including music so naturally as an integral part of a child’s world we may unconsciously be recognizing such fundamental parallels between music, normal neurological functioning, and normal social communication. So basic is music to human society that Margaret Mead has said it is a fundamental human need that bridges cultural diversity. This study made some recommendations to encourage music in the development of a child based on a concrete findings and conclusion.
1.1 Background to the Study
Music has a powerful effect on our emotions. A quiet, gentle lullaby can soothe a fussy baby, and a majestic chorus can make us swell with excitement. But music also can affect the way we think (Bales et al., 2018). In recent years, researchers have learned a lot about how the brain develops. Babies are born with billions of brain cells, called neurons. During the first years of life, those neurons form connections with other neurons. Over time, the connections our brains use regularly become stronger (Bridgett D, 2000).
Children who grow up listening to music develop strong music-related connections in the brain. Some of these music pathways actually affect the way we think. Listening to classical music seems to improve our spatial reasoning, at least for a short time. And learning to play an instrument may have an even longer effect on certain thinking skills (Goldenberg E, 2016). Very early in their life, children will start to identify rhythm and even move to the beats of music. After all, music is meant to touch our souls! Besides that, music provides cognitive benefits that support children’s early development. In this article, we talk about the benefits of getting musical around your toddlers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
“Early childhood is a period of rapid development and a time when family lifestyle patterns can be adapted to boost health gains,” said an official with the World Health Organization in a statement regarding new “screen time” guidelines.
In a new set of guidelines, the World Health Organization said that infants under 1 year old should not be exposed to electronic screens and that children between the ages of 2 and 4 should not have more than one hour of “sedentary screen time” each day. Limiting, and in some cases eliminating, screen time for children under the age of 5 will result in healthier adults, the organization, a United Nations health agency, but taking away electronic devices is only part of the solution, the researchers said. Children under 5 should also get more exercise and sleep in order to develop better habits that will stave off obesity and diseases in adolescence and adulthood, the guidelines said.
Music education and exposure to music by listening or active music making would make children smarter and would have a positive influence on children’s social- emotional skills, motor development and even improve their chance for success in society. Most believes in the transformative power of music, and will be using the grant to experiment with a concept she calls musical contour regulation facilitation, or MCRF, which stemmed from her questioning the whole notion of music as therapy. Their hope is that learning emotion regulation during childhood will help the children resist the urge to act out in violent, counterproductive ways when they become teens and adults.
A music tutor, during her clinical work with premature infants, she said “I really didn’t understand what was creating change. I did recognise that subtle adjustments in tempo, melodic contour and dynamics created very subtle but important changes in these premature infants — physiological and behavioral responses. And that really started me asking major questions.”
Music therapy rose to prominence in the United States after World War II, when physicians began noticing that making music with veterans suffering from what we now call post-traumatic stress seemed to make them calmer and happier.
1.3 Aims and Objectives
The primary aim of this study was investigating the effectiveness of music education on a child’s development. The following are the major objectives of the study;
- To check the extent to which music create a positive impact on many cognitive functions in child development.
- To study how speech transferred to music affects a child’s development.
- To examine the minimal effect of music as an intervention to increase tasks performance in child development.
1.4 Significant of the Study
This study, has several benefits to people in different works of life, especially to those who are into early child care services and students who are currently studying primary education. This study also highlight an understanding of the relationship between music and child development.
This study therefore will be significant to, early child care workers, Nanny Academy, Crèches, and parents. It will also be useful to lecturers who will then use this medium to prepare and equip students for future analysis, presentation and defense. Aside serving as a reference for further studies, researchers in related field, members of the society who will be able to review the standard set for their children will find the research useful in their search for certain factors, in order to find solution for them.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;
- Does musical training in childhood have a positive impact on many cognitive functions in child development?
- Does transfer of training from speech to music have a significant effect on a child’s development?
- Is there a minimal effect of music as an intervention to increase task performance in child development?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypotheses will be tested in the course of the study;
Ho1: Musical training in childhood have a significant effect on many cognitive functions in child development.
H1: Musical training in childhood does not have a significant effect on many cognitive functions in child development.
Ho2: The transfer of training from speech to music, have a significant effect on the child’s development.
H2: The transfer of training from speech to music, does not have a significant effect on the child’s development.
Ho3: The minimal effect of music as an intervention to increase task performance is a significant effect to child development.
H3: The minimal effect of music as an intervention to increase task performance is not a significant effect to child development.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Motor Skill: A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
Child Development: Child development refers to the sequence of physical, language, thought and emotional changes that occur in a child from birth to the beginning of adulthood.
Social Competence: Social competence consists of social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral skills needed for successful social adaptation.
Early Childhood Education: Early childhood education is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of children from birth up to the age of eight.
Music Therapy: Music Therapy is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals.
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