ASSESSMENT OF THE PROBLEMS OF TAX EVASION AND TAX AVOIDANCE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL TOBACCO COMPANY, ILORIN)
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TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENT IV
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
RESEARCH ASSESSMENT 2
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 3
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 3
SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4
RESEARCH QUESTION 4
PLAN OF THE STUDY 5
DEFINITION OF RELATED TERMS 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK 7
2.2 DEFINITION OF TAXATION AND ITS OBJECTIVES 8
2.3 HISTORY OF TAXATION IN NIGERIA 11
2.4 WHAT CONSTITUTE ACTS OF TAX EVASION AND TAX AVOIDANCE AND THEIR DISTINCTIONS 15
2.5 CAUSE AND DEVICES EMPLOYED TO EVADER AND AVOIDANCE 16
2.6 SOME STATUTORY PROVISION AGAINST TAX EVASION AND TAX AVOIDANCE AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE 19
3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 22
3.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTIONS 22
3.2.1 INTERVIEW 22
3.2.2 ORAL AS QUESTIONNAIRE 23
3.2.3 QUESTIONNAIRE 23
3.3 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 24
4.1 THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY (ITC) 26
4.2 HOW TAX EVASION AND TAX AVOIDANCE AFFECT THE REALIZATION OF OBJECTIVE OF TAXATION 28
4.3 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS OF TAX EVASION AND TAX AVOIDANCE 30
4.3.2 EQUITY 31
4.3.3 ECONOMIC PRICE STABILITY 33
4.4 ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE FROM QUESTIONNAIRE 33
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 43
5.2 RESEARCH LIMITATION 44
5.3 CONCLUSIONS 45
5.4 RECOMMENDATION 45
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
“You can have a lord, you can have a king, but the man to fear in the tax collector” (Hepker, 1975:15). This inscription was found on a day tablet in Iraq about 3,500 years ago it goes a long way in explaining the reaction of people to the question of taxation just like simple mention of the word “tax” beings out the ugly sides of many people scattered all over the world.
Nigeria at 47 has been a vast disregard and abuse of countless public laws and policies. in almost every issue you turn to, there is a problem awaiting attention. The issue of taxation is no exception. It is no secret that taxation is one of every nations strongest source of revenue, and it’s importance can therefore, never be over emphasized. Nigeria has a population of well over one hundred million people today, but less than half of this great number respond favourably to this civic responsibility. The reaction of people is a shocking one some even result to violence when asked to pay taxes many question are bound to arise and these questions aroused the interest of the researcher in this vital topic. Are we to sympathize with the common man who feels cheated at having to pay taxes or more sensibly recognize the plight of a government that is struggling to keep the nation making on tax revenue which is not forthcoming! How else can the government provide the basic amenities necessary for the use and comfort of it’s citizen!
Undoubtedly, this research work is timely and its importance cannot be over emphasized, as this is an issue that threaten the continue growth a well-being of our father land, the great giant of Africa i.e Nigeria
1.2 RESEARCH ASSESSMENT
The greater majority of the Nigerian population is made up of people who are ready to resort to every means necessary to either pay as the tax as possible, or a better alternative to pay no tax at all. The situation has become so widespread that is secondary scholars today you discover even under graduates and secondary leaver mapping out strategies to minimize or completely escape taxation. Some revenue collectors have even met with physical resistance and crude man handing in the discharge of their duties.
This state of affairs is very alarming as even the civilized and supposedly enlightened people engage in these practices what could have led to this deplorable state? Why are people so antagonistic and uncivilized when it comes to taxation? Are they justified what effects are they having on the Nigeria economy? What can be done to save the situation? Can people be motivated to begin to respond favourably what effects are the having on the development of the country in general what does the law say about of? Is it adequate these and others are the question that this research work seek to answer as well as proffer suggestion toward finding a lasting solution to the giant assessment of tax evasion and tax avoidance in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This research work titled “the assessment of tax evasion and tax avoidance in Nigeria” seeks to expose the major consultants facing the administration of taxes in Nigeria and the consequence that these constraints have on the Nigeria economy to identify the evils tax evasion and tax avoidance, as well as identify the forms they take and to suggest possible solutions to the problem of controlling tax evasion and tax avoidance. It also makes a critical assessment of the adequacy of the legal provision against these evils and further expose how these evils have hindered the department of the nation.
It is sincerely hoped that this work will arouse the interest of four officials, tax payers a change of attitude and curb these evils that pose a great obstacles in our search for a better nation.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Taxation is a subject which effect the lives of all men whether directly or indirectly. this invariably means that the society as a whole is affected by taxation in Nigeria, as it strives to achieve its societal goal. It is hoped that this work will help the society come to better understanding and appreciation of the essence of taxation and encourage them to desist from the practices of tax evasion and tax avoidance. Tax officials revenue collects officer also stand to benefit from the suggestion proffered by the researcher. Even the government has plenty to gain from picking some ideas from this work and implementing them since the subject affect all men all men stand to gain from this work and this create a better nation for all of us.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work include information gathered from tax official and tax payers in Ilorin, Kwara State, since the assessment created by tax evasion and tax avoidance are mainly identified in all the 36 states of the federation, this information is extensively application to the country as a whole. The reason behind this section is the availability of satisfactory data and the willingness of the tax official and tax payers in this state to provide helpful information.
This study is mainly based on the information obtained, findings from books and documents about federal government tax revue, as well as helpful details obtained from tax records and the result of interview with tax official and tax payers.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology has to do with the rules principles, procedure as well as the ways and manner in which the scientific investigation is to be carried out ii state the method of data collection to be adopted for this research work.
Primary and secondary sources were used to collect data and primary sources of data include interview and administration of questionnaire, while secondary data include journals, staff manual, textbooks and other materials.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION
- What are the impact of economic and social effects of tax evasion and tax avoidance in Nigeria
- How do tax evasion and tax avoidance affect the economic price stability in Nigeria
- How do tax evasion and tax avoidance affect the economic growth and development in Nigeria.
1.8 PLAN OF THE STUDY
This research report is divided into five chapters
Chapter one contains introduction, background of the study, research assessment, significance of the study, scope of the study, research methodology, research hypothesis, research question, plan of the study and definition of relevant word.
Chapter two contains literature review on the research topic and the third
Chapter contain the management of the business organization, data generated and discuss of result.
Chapter four deals with historical background of case study, research design as well as the assessment of tax evasion and tax avoidance in Nigeria.
Chapter five contains summary, conclusion and recommendation made at the end of the research work.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF RELEVANT TERMS
Two terms will be in constant use all through this research work and therefore there is the need to clearly define them so as to convey a concise understanding of the content of this work to the reader. The terms are tax evasion and tax avoidance.
Tax evasion :– Is a deliberate attempt not to pay tax. it is an illegal practice which stems from acts of concealing, dishonesty, deception, ignorance, negligence or outright escape of tax payment on the part of the tax payer and results in his paying less tax or not tax at all. this of course, reduces the revenue that would have otherwise accrued to government.
Tax avoidance :- Is defined as the process of arranging one” affairs in such a way as to take advantage of loop holes or provision in the tax laws. The result is similar to that of tax evasion, as the tax payees ends up paying less than he would otherwise have paid or does not pay at this reducing the revenue that would have accrued to government.
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