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Poor primary school management and its impact on youths restiveness – Dutable



This study focused on the effect of poor administration in business education program, using Lagos State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on Identifying the core problems that have been hindering operation effective and efficiency of business education program, the effective and efficient utilization of all resources both human and material in nature; the contributions of appointment to the executive positions and seek remedies where necessary; serving as resource information of signal to the government in its efforts to revamping business education program, this is so because prevention they say is better than cure and finally to proffer suggestion solution to the problems of poor administration where necessary. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of Lagos State University. A four point scaled questionnaire was used for data collection, validated by two experts and the reliability coefficient using the Cronbach alpha method was 0.82. The results showed that there are administrative challenges facing business education programme. It also showed how the possibilities of overcoming the challenges of business education programme would help in promoting national development. Logical conclusion was drawn based on these findings. It was recommended, among others, that government and other major stakeholders should invest their resources (financially and otherwise) to ensure the possibilities of overcoming the challenges facing business education for national development.



                       TABLE OF CONTENT


Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objective of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Research Hypothesis

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Scope of the Study

1.8 Limitation of the Study

1.9 Definition of Terms

1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two: Review of Literature

2.1 Conceptual Framework

2.2 Theoretical Framework

2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population of the Study

3.3 Sample Size Determination

3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure

3.5 Research Instrument and Administration

3.6 Method of Data Collection

3.7 Method of Data Analysis

3.8 Validity of the Study

3.9 Reliability of the Study

3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1 Data Presentation

4.2 Analysis of Data

4.3 Answering Research Questions

4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation






1.1 Background to the study

The administration of a school institution is responsible for assembling various resources and successfully allocating them to achieve the institution’s overarching objectives National Teachers Institute (NTI, 2006). Nigeria, like other countries throughout the world, owes it to its population to get them ready for a future with swift social, economic, political, and technical change. Education should result in individuals or groups who are logical, reasonable, refined, and accountable for their own or the society’s personal or collective growth. Education has come to be recognized as the cornerstone of the overall advancement of both people and society around the world. The United Nations Organization emphasizes the need of educating all children worldwide. Although she faces many difficulties everywhere, Africa, one of the seven continents in the globe, is doing her best.

School administration can simply be understood in a simple statement as ‘looking after the complete affairs related to school. In actuality, it is a managerial ability for effective operation and execution. School administration is defined by the Glossary of Education (2012) as the process of organizing, directing, and managing the people or material resources of a school, college, or university. This description makes it clear that each school has a team of administrators who are responsible for planning, coordinating, directing, and supervising operations. The administration is in charge of overseeing the growth of the school as well as the welfare of the faculty and employees. They are frequently the only organization that serves as a link between the community and the schools. According to Johnson (2012), school administration serves as the primary governing body of the institution and has a significant influence on decisions affecting the school’s pupils, teachers, and overall status. Depending on the type of school, there are several approaches to administration.

Business education is one of the occupational areas that are richly provided by vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Business education refers to a programme of instruction that offers various skills in accounting, marketing and Office Technology and Management (OTM). Major topics include: office practice, book keeping, business mathematics, business communication, secretarial duties, word processing, advertising (Ajisafe, Bolarinwa & Edeh 2015). Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) had stipulated that the actual goals of business education shall be to:

  1. Prepare students for specific career in office occupations;
  2. Equip students with the requisite skills for job creation and entrepreneurship; and
  3. Expose students with knowledge about business, including a good blend of computer technology, which incorporates Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

They further explained that the first two goals involve education ‘for’ business, which is aimed at equipping recipients with the requisite attributes (knowledge, skills, competencies, and attitudes) to become gainfully employed in the world of work, whereas the later addresses education ‘about’ business, which is aimed at providing a sound basis for further studies at the graduate and post-graduate levels.


The majority of definitions for business education emphasize its vocational aspect. It is a type of vocational instruction that aims to make learners productive in the classroom, in paid job, and in self-employment (Anyeaeneh & Nkegwu, 2015) Beneficiaries of business education are prepared for lucrative job and stable subsistence. It is typically thought of as business education. It is a form of education that imparts information and comprehension about the financial, marketing, accounting, and other business endeavors, as well as the economic and financial aspects of them. Students in business education make a vital contribution to the growth and development of the nation’s economy through their creativity and novel ideas. According to (Norhidayah, 2009), university students are responsible for the social and economic development of any nation because they have contributed to the development of the management, administrative, and educational tools required for people to hold important positions in government and private sector establishments like banks and other financial institutions (Afemikhe, 2005). Hence, education about business prepares students to function intelligently as consumers and citizens in a business economy.

Inadequate financial resources have generally been identified as the biggest challenge facing Nigerian education (Nwadiani & Omoike, 2006; Asiyai, 2015), particularly in the capital-intensive vocational and technical education sector (Adeyanju, Adekunle, Osifila, 2007), of which business education programs are a major component. Because of this, every component of the business school instructional environment is subjected to sufficient resource optimization. However, business education has been having trouble employing both quality and quantity of labor, developing or updating curriculum, and providing a wide range of cutting-edge infrastructure and facilities, such as cutting-edge lecture halls, workshops, studios, libraries, entrepreneurial research centers, and Information Technology (IT) services. This is because of the competing demands for financial resources by different sectors of the Nigerian economy. All of these problems and difficulties are merely indicators that business education programs are now theoretically taught and, as a result, are unable to provide students with the necessary information, skills, and attitudes for productive work and further study.

Ilusanya (2005) observed that the state of vocational education generally in Nigeria is becoming embarrassing. He lamented on the inadequacy of personnel as well as their lackadaisical attitude towards the teaching of the subject. In the same direction, Ilemobade (1994) also commented on the state of vocational education in general. The author argued that teachers are not committed to the teaching of vocational and technical subjects. Where there is inadequate provision of teaching personnel in terms of quality and quantity, the realization of the broad goals of business education will be difficult. Aworanti (2015a) observed that the basic infrastructural facilities have declined both in quality and quantity. Even where these infrastructural facilities are available, they are not only in bad and non-functional state but also very obsolete. According to Abassah (2011), the federal and state governments have not been providing proper financial resources to address this critical area. The author claim that all we are getting is just lip-service to vocational education. The author also lamented that even when the teachers are ready to improvise instructional materials, the little amount of funds needed could still not be received from the school authorities. This situation has hindered the proper application of instructional delivery of business education.

The low status associated with business education has made parents to have a strong preference towards white colour careers (Gambo, cited in Idialu, 2007). Parents and elites clamor for other types of education and only opt for business education as their last resort. Most parents prefer their children or wards to study prestigious courses like medicine, engineering and law (Federal Ministry of Education, 2005). Parents are further discouraged by the low quality of business education, which seem to be attributed to a number of factors, such as the inadequate provision of financial, human,as well as material resources. Today, business education no longer commands prestige and reputation in Nigeria. Rather, it is generally regarded as a blue colour career often reserved for dropouts (Nwachokor, 2002), or for people with low intelligent quotient (Osuala, 1995).

The effect of the above-mentioned challenges such as inadequate provision of funds, qualified manpower, modern facilities, and quality curriculum, coupled with low public interest, is that skilled and competent graduates may not be produced. Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) opined that this situation has devalued the image of business education both in education and labour market. Ekpenyong and Edokpolor (2015a) also stated that this situation has contributed to the increasing rate of unemployment and level of poverty among business education graduates. Looking at the issue of unemployment and poverty closely, one would observe that most graduates find themselves at cross roads after completion of their education programmes. Unemployment and poverty have become a national crisis, which has to be addressed if Nigeria is to enjoy sustainable development, with relatively peace and security. Ekpo (2011) argued that the insecurity in Nigeria, such as the spate of terrorist attacks, kidnappings, suicide bombing, crime, break down of law and order, is not unconnected with the high rates of unemployment and poverty.

The high rates of unemployment and poverty in Nigeria has necessitated the need for all stakeholders to collaboratively invest sufficient amount of resources on business education. This strategic approach according to Edokpolor, Edokpolor and Olupayimo (2016) can help to serve various purposes, which include financial management, staff development, curriculum renewal, service delivery, students mentoring, equipment donation, raising course awareness, facilities management, and lots more. Edokpolor and Egbri (2017) stated that the effective optimization of resources would further help in promoting the development of Nigerian economy.

The concept of development has to do with the identification of basic needs of families, individuals, interest groups, communities and their abilities to meet these needs, which are channeled or targeted towards sustainable development (Ogunduyile, 2004). Accordingly, national development can be described as the attainment of economic growth, leading to economic competiveness, high standard of living and self-reliance (Ekpenyong & Edokpolor, 2015a). From the foregoing, one would observe that ensuring the optimization of resources (both human and material) and re-orienting the mindset of Nigerians towards the surpassing worth of business education would help in producing skilled graduates, who are useful for the development of the society. This strategic means of ensuring implementation of business education would help to improve quality of human lives and capabilities by raising their levels of life sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom from servitude. Enu-Kwesi and Asitik (2012) remarked that these core values of development are concerned with the provision of basic needs, such as housing, clothing, food, and education as well as self-respect, and independence. Todaro and Smith (2011) also indicated that no country across the globe can be considered as fully developed, if it remains in economic and political subjugation to another powerful nation. The realization of these basic components of national development will further help in stimulating people’s belief about the usefulness of business education in Nigeria.

The introduction of administration and supervision in business education in Nigeria dates back to the colonial era, to the time of the missionaries. For long, administrators and supervisors of business education were selected from among lecturers/classroom teachers, such, administrators and supervisors depend solely on, their experiences gained from the classroom to administer and supervise the various organs of business education in their respective area.

According to Nwankwo (2002), administration is an organization what the central nervous system is to the body. In business education an administrator initiates, activates, directs, controls, and monitors the functioning of the various organs of the system.

Wannke (2010) highlighted that in modern times it has become rapidly clear that experience alone does not constitute a valid base for administering and supervising business education, hence tertiary institutions have become very difficult. The numbers of lecturers in our tertiary institutions have highly increased with varied qualifications.

Moreover, the students come to school from different backgrounds that often confuse the supervisor and unprepared administrator. It is discovered that the facilities and services for business education programme are becoming more complex to manage

Moreover Denga (2011) opined that the field of administration and supervision in business education is becoming famous in the country’s educational environment and graduates of the programme are awarded complimentary

Keeling and Callus (2012) saw administration as the process of planning organizing controlling leading and directing people to attain the objectives of the organization. An administrator is an officer who supervises others using all the techniques, methods, procedures and even the personnel in operating on organization or carrying out polices that have been established by a polity making body. The administrator of business education is responsible for planning, arrangement and organization  of  human and material resources aimed at attaining ‘the ‘objectives of business education. According to Isinenyi (2005) supervision is act of influencing workers in organization to carryout work and service. Supervisor should also be seen as a person that directs another person’s work. Nworgu (2010) defined educational supervision as a process of bringing about improvement in instruction by working both working with people. It is a means of helping teachers to help themselves.

Warmk (2010) stated that supervision provides resources, consultation Ieaci6rship and cooperative service designed to improve instruction through leadership. It is imperative effort directed towards a common objective. Meanwhile, supervision is carried out in educational institutions in order to ensure that the process will lead to the attainment of desired goals. Supervision actually’ means overseeing, controlling, dealing with situations immediately as they arise where as management means operating far by using administrative techniques. Supervision can also be seen, as an art  of  working with a group of people over whom authority is exercised in such a way as to achieve the progressive effectiveness in getting work done. Administration and supervision in business education are linked in teaching and learning. Administration covers the formal structure of tertiary institutions management. Administrators in business education are on the apex level of management making polices, planning, taking decision’s while supervisors in business education are highly responsible and control at the technical board.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Lack of qualified labor is one of the main issues preventing the efficient administration of business program. Both at the secondary and postsecondary levels of education, there is a lack of skilled personnel in the field of business education. The tertiary stage is where this issue is more severe. This is to be expected given the lack of funding for hiring skilled labor. Ilusanya (2005) noted that the state of Nigeria’s vocational education in general is degrading. Inadequate infrastructure facilities are another issue that affects business education. There is currently a severe lack of labs, libraries, studios, and entrepreneurship research centers at almost all universities that teach business education. Aworanti (2015) noted that the quantity and quality of the basic infrastructure amenities have decreased as evidence for this. Even where these infrastructure facilities are there, they are not only very out-of-date but also in a poor, non-operational state. The problem of using out-of-date curriculum is one that affects business education equally. Most business education curriculum need to be updated as a result of their age. Aworanti (2015a) elaborates on this, stating that it is regretful that the majority of vocational education curricula are out-of-date because they have been in use for more than fifteen years. Looking closely at this circumstance, it is evident that present business education may not be able to adequately meet the needs of industries or labor employers. This situation has consequently created a huge gap between business education and industries in Nigeria. Therefore, this study on the effects of poor administration in business education program will fill the above gaps.


1.3 Objective of the study

The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of poor administration in business education program. The specific objectives are to:

  • Identifying the core problems that have been hindering effective operation and efficiency of business education program.
  • To identify the effective and efficient utilization of all resources both human and material means of tackling the challenges of poor administration.
  • To look at the contributions of appointment to the executive positions and seek remedies where necessary.
  • To serve as resource information of signal to the government in its efforts to revamping business education program, this is so because prevention they say is better than cure.
  • Finally to proffer suggestion solution to the problems of poor administration where necessary

1.4 Research Question

The following questions were carefully selected to guide the study:

  1. What is the core problems that have been hindering effective operation and efficiency of business education program?
  2. What is the effective and efficient utilization of all resources both human and material in nature?
  3. What is the contributions of appointment to the executive positions and seek remedies where necessary.
  4. What solution to the problems of poor administration where necessary ?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypothesis was formulated and tested by the study

Ho: There is no significant effect of poor administration in business education program

Hi: there is significant effect of poor administration in business education program

1.6 Significance of the study

The study when completed will reveal the importance of administration in the progress of business education program in Nigeria.

The outcome of this study will educate education policy makers on the effective management of business education programs in Nigeria.

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of educational administration on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

Business education students will benefit from this study as it will serve as reference for future studies.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the effect of poor administration in business education program in Lagos State University. The study is limited to Lagos State University. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among business students in the study area.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

1.9   Definition of Terms


Administration is the range of activities connected with organizing and supervising the way that an organization or institution functions.

Business education

Business education generally refers to the plethora of courses designed to provide students with any number of skills needed for success in business.

1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.